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# Maps, Globes, Charts, and Graphics

by Candace and Crystal

#### Transcript of Maps, Globes, Charts, and Graphics

photo credit Nasa / Goddard Space Flight Center / Reto Stöckli

Powerful Tools

Introduction

This presentation is about maps, globes, charts, and graphics. The presentation discusses map and globe skills, how to teach the globe, how to teach maps and mapping, and how to teach charts and graphs. It gives examples for different grade levels and how things should be taught on specific grade levels. We will also look at map symbols and the different ways maps are projected.

Map and Globe Skills

Teaching the Globe

Teaching Maps

Students maps skills will improve if we provide them with more challenging situations in the classroom as they develop intellectually. They already have in their minds mental maps of their homes, neighborhood, the school, and other placed in their everyday life. Teachers need to help develop their spatial competencies beyond their current understanding. This can best be done by using diagrams and maps.

Maps, Globes, Charts, and Graphics

by Crystal Passmore and Candace Moore

Globes for grades 1-3

Maps and globes are tools for representing space and place symbolically.

The essential features of all maps and globes are a grid, color, scale, symbols, and a legend that explains the symbols used.

Map and Globe Skills Essential

Orient a map and note directions.

Use the scale and compute distances.

Locate places on maps and globes.

Express relative location.

Interpret map symbols and visualize what they mean.

Essentials for Map Reading Skills

A child most be able to understand directional relationships on maps and globes.

Understanding Directional Orientation

Using Map Scales

Globes are models of Earth. Maps cannot faithfully represent Earth because Earth is round and maps are flat. The flatting process results in some distortion.

Locating Places

Location and recall, is important to know in locating places. The ability to locate places on maps and globes and to verbally express locations come with familiarity over a period of time.

Globe activities

Explain the globe is a small model of Earth, which is our home and where we all live.

Show the student the land areas and water bodies (oceans.)

Help students see there is more water than land. Ask them why that is. Tell them sometimes Earth is called the "water planet."

Show the location of the South Pole.

Explain Earth is a planet

From Globe to Map

Teaching Maps

Teaching Map Color

Teaching Map Symbols

Interpretation

Directions

Directional Orientation

Map Scales

Locating Places

Expressing Location

Symbols

Maps distort Earth's surface because they are flat.

To help students develop spatial competencies.

Use diagrams and maps that the teacher and children make of their immediate vicinity.

Students will begin to see how familiar places can be represented by using grid , color , scale, symbols, and a legend.

Demonstrate Google Earth using the projector.

A definite advantage that globes have over Maps is that they show the shapes of areas exactly as they appear on Earth. Maps distort the Earths surface because they are flat, whereas the space they represent is round.

Cartographers-Professional mapmakers.

Projection-process of transferring information from the round globe to a flat map.

Directions learned in primary grades are as follows:

The easiest directions to use are those that express relative location such as close to, near, and over there.

Cardinal directions which are north of, south of, and so on.

Cardinal directions are seen on a compass rose.

The Mercator projection-Developed for navigation purposes.

The Peters projection-Africa and South America is much larger than the United States.

The Fuller projection-has no visible distortion in the shape or relative size of any landmass when compared to the globe.

Scaling is the process of reducing everything by the same amount.

Some things are larger or smaller than other things.

Maps should show their relative size as accurately as possible.

Different Map Scales

Three types of scales used on conventional maps are:

The graphic scale

The inches-to-miles scale

The representative fraction

Graphic scales is easiest to use and to be taught around third grade.

The inches-to-miles scale is to be taught in fourth or fifth grade because of its complexity.

The representative fraction is usually considered to be used after elementary school.

Using The Different Scales

Map Sizes

It is important for students to know that maps cannot be made to scale.

World maps need to be small enough to fit in the classrooms.

Road maps have to be small enough to fit in the glove compartment of the car.

Trail maps need to be small enough to fit in pants pockets.

Maps must be made smaller than the place it represents, and everything on the map must be made smaller in the same amount.

Students should learn cardinal directions ( 4 mains points on compass.) Can label the walls, north, south, east, and west.

Take students outdoors and point out directions

Map work should include reference to direction and become more complex starting in the fourth grade.

Reference the "Grid Lines" -Every place on Earth has an absolute address.

Tell students the North Pole (north), and South Pole(south) can be found by following the meridians of longitude.

East and West can be found by following the parallel of latitude.

Learning Location

Children first learn to locate places that are known to them on simple maps.

Early grades learn the names and shapes of some of the major geographic features, such as the continents, oceans, the equator, and the poles.

Do NOT teach North is up and South is bottom on map or globe!

Learning Location Continue....

In intermediate grades, children are taught to use coordinates to locate places.

They use grids to help them discover different cities.

Grid maps help students to get ready for the use of meridians of longitude and parallels of latitude on a map.

Grids Used on Maps

When children have learned the meaning of map symbols, are skillful in orienting a map to direction, and can recognize and use map scales, they are well on their way toward an understanding of the language of maps.

Let north-west lines identified with letters.

Let the other set of lines be numbered.

Then the teacher can say find D and 2 intersection.

You can ask what city lies there.

Teachers can assess the students skills by having them make a map, as they direct them what to draw.

Comparing Maps of the same place (transit, political, physical, resource, and elevation maps.)

Expressing Location

It is important to understand that there are two ways to indicate the location of any place: relative and absolute.

The use of color often confuse children as they try to visualize elevations. They seem to believe that all areas represented by one color are the same elevation and don't recognize the variations in elevation. They also develop the mistaken idea that change in elevations occur abruptly when the colors changes.

Relative location is indicated by real estate agents when they tell you that the is located near school and restaurants. It is where the place is sort-of located at.

Absolute location is indicated by statements like the house is at the corner of Maple and Third. This places the place in between two lines or points.

Use a relief map-shows the changes in elevation occur gradually. (comparing will give children a better understanding of map color used to represent elevation.

Landform Maps-shows the plains, plateaus, hills, and mountains(represented by different color.)

Reading Map Symbols

Maps use symbols to represent real things:

dots of varying sizes stand for cities of different populations.

color is used to represent elevation.

Stars indicate capital cities.

lines are used to show boundaries, coastlines, and rivers.

Map Symbols

In primary grades students use map symbols that are pictorial or semi pictorial. These symbols either look like the object or provide a strong clue as to its identity.

Map Symbols Continued.....

Children will gradually move from pictorial and semi pictorial symbols on maps to more abstract symbols used on conventional wall maps and globes. This starts in the intermediate and middle grades.

Use 12 inch globe

Should display no more than 3 colors to represent the land elevation and water depth.

The symbol may be chosen and bear no resemblance to the object represented, or it may suggest to the reader what is intended.

Example:

A post office may be represented by a small circle or by a small square with a flag placed on top.

Remember that with small children to use pictorial and semi pictorial symbols

Teaching Symbols Continued.....

Children need to understand that each symbol can only be used for one item.

Example: If a student uses a cross to represent a church than a cross can not be used to represent anything except for that particular church.

Example: If a square and a flag represents a post office than it can only represent post offices.

The purpose of the students experiencing symbols on the maps is simply to show that it is possible to represent space symbolically, and that symbols stand for real things.

Comparing Maps of the Same Place

Comparing different maps of the same place helps students to think critically. Students can look at a map of a location showing industrial centers and look at a different map of the same location showing iron and water.

Google Earth is a helpful online tool for comparing different maps of the same place.

Teaching the globe helps familiarize children with the roundness of Earth and to begin to develop a global perspective.

Teaching Charts and Graphs

Since there is a widespread use of graphs and charts in and outside of school, it is imperative that children develop the skill needed to read and interpret them.

Charts

Charts are used to present ideas in a vivid and forceful way.

One kind of chart that is used a lot is the data-organization chart. This is a two-way chart. This chart helps students to keep track of, organize, and compare a large amount of information.

There are other kinds of charts:

Tabulation chart: lists data in table form to facilitate making comparisons.

classification chart: groups data into various categories.

Organization chart: shows the structure of an organization.

Flow chart: shows a process involving change at certain points.

Graphs

Graphs are used to illustrate relationships among quantities.

The most widely used used graphs are the bar graph, the pie graph, and the line graph. Any of these graphs may include pictorial representation, thereby making them more interesting to young children.

Example: In primary grades stick figures can represent children in a bar graph showing the number absent form class each day.

Bar Graph

Pie Graph

Line Graph

Google Earth Demonstration

Activity

P

M

P

Full transcriptPowerful Tools

Introduction

This presentation is about maps, globes, charts, and graphics. The presentation discusses map and globe skills, how to teach the globe, how to teach maps and mapping, and how to teach charts and graphs. It gives examples for different grade levels and how things should be taught on specific grade levels. We will also look at map symbols and the different ways maps are projected.

Map and Globe Skills

Teaching the Globe

Teaching Maps

Students maps skills will improve if we provide them with more challenging situations in the classroom as they develop intellectually. They already have in their minds mental maps of their homes, neighborhood, the school, and other placed in their everyday life. Teachers need to help develop their spatial competencies beyond their current understanding. This can best be done by using diagrams and maps.

Maps, Globes, Charts, and Graphics

by Crystal Passmore and Candace Moore

Globes for grades 1-3

Maps and globes are tools for representing space and place symbolically.

The essential features of all maps and globes are a grid, color, scale, symbols, and a legend that explains the symbols used.

Map and Globe Skills Essential

Orient a map and note directions.

Use the scale and compute distances.

Locate places on maps and globes.

Express relative location.

Interpret map symbols and visualize what they mean.

Essentials for Map Reading Skills

A child most be able to understand directional relationships on maps and globes.

Understanding Directional Orientation

Using Map Scales

Globes are models of Earth. Maps cannot faithfully represent Earth because Earth is round and maps are flat. The flatting process results in some distortion.

Locating Places

Location and recall, is important to know in locating places. The ability to locate places on maps and globes and to verbally express locations come with familiarity over a period of time.

Globe activities

Explain the globe is a small model of Earth, which is our home and where we all live.

Show the student the land areas and water bodies (oceans.)

Help students see there is more water than land. Ask them why that is. Tell them sometimes Earth is called the "water planet."

Show the location of the South Pole.

Explain Earth is a planet

From Globe to Map

Teaching Maps

Teaching Map Color

Teaching Map Symbols

Interpretation

Directions

Directional Orientation

Map Scales

Locating Places

Expressing Location

Symbols

Maps distort Earth's surface because they are flat.

To help students develop spatial competencies.

Use diagrams and maps that the teacher and children make of their immediate vicinity.

Students will begin to see how familiar places can be represented by using grid , color , scale, symbols, and a legend.

Demonstrate Google Earth using the projector.

A definite advantage that globes have over Maps is that they show the shapes of areas exactly as they appear on Earth. Maps distort the Earths surface because they are flat, whereas the space they represent is round.

Cartographers-Professional mapmakers.

Projection-process of transferring information from the round globe to a flat map.

Directions learned in primary grades are as follows:

The easiest directions to use are those that express relative location such as close to, near, and over there.

Cardinal directions which are north of, south of, and so on.

Cardinal directions are seen on a compass rose.

The Mercator projection-Developed for navigation purposes.

The Peters projection-Africa and South America is much larger than the United States.

The Fuller projection-has no visible distortion in the shape or relative size of any landmass when compared to the globe.

Scaling is the process of reducing everything by the same amount.

Some things are larger or smaller than other things.

Maps should show their relative size as accurately as possible.

Different Map Scales

Three types of scales used on conventional maps are:

The graphic scale

The inches-to-miles scale

The representative fraction

Graphic scales is easiest to use and to be taught around third grade.

The inches-to-miles scale is to be taught in fourth or fifth grade because of its complexity.

The representative fraction is usually considered to be used after elementary school.

Using The Different Scales

Map Sizes

It is important for students to know that maps cannot be made to scale.

World maps need to be small enough to fit in the classrooms.

Road maps have to be small enough to fit in the glove compartment of the car.

Trail maps need to be small enough to fit in pants pockets.

Maps must be made smaller than the place it represents, and everything on the map must be made smaller in the same amount.

Students should learn cardinal directions ( 4 mains points on compass.) Can label the walls, north, south, east, and west.

Take students outdoors and point out directions

Map work should include reference to direction and become more complex starting in the fourth grade.

Reference the "Grid Lines" -Every place on Earth has an absolute address.

Tell students the North Pole (north), and South Pole(south) can be found by following the meridians of longitude.

East and West can be found by following the parallel of latitude.

Learning Location

Children first learn to locate places that are known to them on simple maps.

Early grades learn the names and shapes of some of the major geographic features, such as the continents, oceans, the equator, and the poles.

Do NOT teach North is up and South is bottom on map or globe!

Learning Location Continue....

In intermediate grades, children are taught to use coordinates to locate places.

They use grids to help them discover different cities.

Grid maps help students to get ready for the use of meridians of longitude and parallels of latitude on a map.

Grids Used on Maps

When children have learned the meaning of map symbols, are skillful in orienting a map to direction, and can recognize and use map scales, they are well on their way toward an understanding of the language of maps.

Let north-west lines identified with letters.

Let the other set of lines be numbered.

Then the teacher can say find D and 2 intersection.

You can ask what city lies there.

Teachers can assess the students skills by having them make a map, as they direct them what to draw.

Comparing Maps of the same place (transit, political, physical, resource, and elevation maps.)

Expressing Location

It is important to understand that there are two ways to indicate the location of any place: relative and absolute.

The use of color often confuse children as they try to visualize elevations. They seem to believe that all areas represented by one color are the same elevation and don't recognize the variations in elevation. They also develop the mistaken idea that change in elevations occur abruptly when the colors changes.

Relative location is indicated by real estate agents when they tell you that the is located near school and restaurants. It is where the place is sort-of located at.

Absolute location is indicated by statements like the house is at the corner of Maple and Third. This places the place in between two lines or points.

Use a relief map-shows the changes in elevation occur gradually. (comparing will give children a better understanding of map color used to represent elevation.

Landform Maps-shows the plains, plateaus, hills, and mountains(represented by different color.)

Reading Map Symbols

Maps use symbols to represent real things:

dots of varying sizes stand for cities of different populations.

color is used to represent elevation.

Stars indicate capital cities.

lines are used to show boundaries, coastlines, and rivers.

Map Symbols

In primary grades students use map symbols that are pictorial or semi pictorial. These symbols either look like the object or provide a strong clue as to its identity.

Map Symbols Continued.....

Children will gradually move from pictorial and semi pictorial symbols on maps to more abstract symbols used on conventional wall maps and globes. This starts in the intermediate and middle grades.

Use 12 inch globe

Should display no more than 3 colors to represent the land elevation and water depth.

The symbol may be chosen and bear no resemblance to the object represented, or it may suggest to the reader what is intended.

Example:

A post office may be represented by a small circle or by a small square with a flag placed on top.

Remember that with small children to use pictorial and semi pictorial symbols

Teaching Symbols Continued.....

Children need to understand that each symbol can only be used for one item.

Example: If a student uses a cross to represent a church than a cross can not be used to represent anything except for that particular church.

Example: If a square and a flag represents a post office than it can only represent post offices.

The purpose of the students experiencing symbols on the maps is simply to show that it is possible to represent space symbolically, and that symbols stand for real things.

Comparing Maps of the Same Place

Comparing different maps of the same place helps students to think critically. Students can look at a map of a location showing industrial centers and look at a different map of the same location showing iron and water.

Google Earth is a helpful online tool for comparing different maps of the same place.

Teaching the globe helps familiarize children with the roundness of Earth and to begin to develop a global perspective.

Teaching Charts and Graphs

Since there is a widespread use of graphs and charts in and outside of school, it is imperative that children develop the skill needed to read and interpret them.

Charts

Charts are used to present ideas in a vivid and forceful way.

One kind of chart that is used a lot is the data-organization chart. This is a two-way chart. This chart helps students to keep track of, organize, and compare a large amount of information.

There are other kinds of charts:

Tabulation chart: lists data in table form to facilitate making comparisons.

classification chart: groups data into various categories.

Organization chart: shows the structure of an organization.

Flow chart: shows a process involving change at certain points.

Graphs

Graphs are used to illustrate relationships among quantities.

The most widely used used graphs are the bar graph, the pie graph, and the line graph. Any of these graphs may include pictorial representation, thereby making them more interesting to young children.

Example: In primary grades stick figures can represent children in a bar graph showing the number absent form class each day.

Bar Graph

Pie Graph

Line Graph

Google Earth Demonstration

Activity

P

M

P