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Rural and Urban Development

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Kamille Bomediano

on 19 September 2014

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Transcript of Rural and Urban Development

Rural and Urban Development
design by Dóri Sirály for Prezi
A rural area is a geographic area that is located outside cities and towns.
Typical rural areas have a low population density and small settlements. 
Agricultural areas are commonly rural, though so are others such as forests.
Low income
Unemployment
Low quality of social services like education and healthcare
Their remoteness from major urban centers

What is a rural area?
Lack of infrastructure
Insufficient access to markets
Lack of non-motorised load-carrying wheeled vehicles (handcarts and wheelbarrows)

Some of the roots of rural poverty
The Nature of Rural Problems
financial, human and management is the object of rural development.
The theory of regional development gives following definition of rural development: a change which not only includes certain economic indicators but also to increase the welfare of the rural population so as to solve their basic problems and exploit opportunities for economic growth.

Agriculture is the primary and often only source of income for poor rural people, most of whom depend on subsistence farming and fishing for their livelihoods.
In general, illiteracy, unemployment and the incidence of poverty are higher among indigenous peoples and people living in the upland areas.
Among the causes of rural poverty are a decline in the productivity and profitability of farming, smaller farm sizes and unsustainable practices that have led to deforestation and depleted fishing waters.
Rural Areas – Roots of Poverty
Rural Development in the Philippines
A more structured rural development program in
the Philippines started in the 1950’s. Most of the rural development projects were assisted by the United States in the form of financial, technical and commodity aid.
The Philippine rural development program is an integrated approach in improving the social and economic conditions of the rural poor. Its top priority is the development of people’s attitude, values, knowledge, and skills.
Top Priority is the development of people’s:
Attitudes
Values
Knowledge
Skills

The Key Programs of the Government for Rural Development are:
Agrarian Reform
Cooperatives
Labor-intensive Industries
Manpower Development
The KKK
The Strategy for rural development takes into consideration
the needs, problems, and resources of every region in the country.

The Philippines is an Agricultural Economy.

The best way to improve the social and economic conditions of the farmers is to make them the owners of the lands they have been cultivating for many years.



Filipino Farmers and Rural Development

Some Rural Development Programs/Projects:
Agrarian Reform Program
Cooperatives Development Program
Human Settlement Program
Community Development Program
Nutrition Program
Integrated Area Development Program
Rural Electrification Program
Fishing resources Management
Medium and Small-scale Industries
Family Planning

Comprehensive Agrarian Reform Program
commonly known as CARP, is an agrarian reform law of the Philippines passed in 1988 (Republic Act No. 6657). It is part of the long history of attempts at land reform in the Philippines. The law was outlined by former President Corazon C. Aquino through Presidential Proclamation 131 and Executive Order 229 on June 22, 1987.
In this program, all lands exceeding seven hectares were to be bought by the government and sold to the landless farmers. Previous owners of the land were paid in installments for 15 years.

Cooperative Development Authority (CDA)
is a government agency created by virtue of Republic Act No. 6939 in compliance with the provisions of Section 15, Article XII of the Philippine Constitution of 1987 which mandates Congress to create an agency to promote the viability and growth of cooperatives as instruments for equity, social justice and economic development. RA 6939 was signed into law on March 10, 1990.

Philippine Plan of Action for Nutrition
is the country's response to malnutrition. 
An integral component and as a companion plan of the Philippine Development Plan (PDP), 2011-2016, PPAN provides the framework for improving the nutritional status of Filipinos.  The NNC believes that nutrition should and would have influence and would be influenced by other concerns in the PDP -- from pursuit of inclusive growth to macroeconomic policy, industry, agriculture and fisheries, infrastructure, governance, peace and security, and environment and natural resources.  

The Philippine Family Planning Program (PFPP)
has been implemented for about 38 years which started from a demographic perspective to a health intervention oriented program.

Four (4) Pillars / Guiding Principles of the PFPP
Responsible Parenthood 
Respect for life
Birth Spacing
Informed choice

Philippine Rural Development Program
The Rural Development Project for the Philippines aims to increase rural incomes and enhance farm and fishery productivity in targeted areas by supporting smallholders and fisheries to increase their marketable surpluses and their access to markets.
This will be achieved through: (a) supporting changes in agricultural and fisheries planning, resource programming and implementation practices; and (b) financing priority local investments in rural infrastructure and enterprise development derived from agricultural and fisheries modernization plans, using a value chain approach, and through stakeholder consultations.


The National Economic and Development Authority and the Cabinet of the Aquino Administration have approved the allocation of P27.54 billion for the Philippine Rural Development Program (PRDP), a special program of the Department of Agriculture (DA) for inclusive growth and for creating a weather-resilient agri-fishery sector.
The approved funding includes P20.55 billion in loans from the World Bank, P3.58 billion as national government counterpart, P3.12 billion in equity from local government units (LGUs), and P287-million grant from the Global Environment Facility (GEF).

Stages of RURAL DEVELOPMENT
( The transition of China from a peasant economy into a collective agriculture from 1952 - 1958)

1. MUTUAL AID TEAM
The first step towards collectivization (the process of forming collectives where property and resources are owned by the community)
Composed of 6 to 10 families. By the end of 1952, 40% of families belonged to 8 million teams.

2. ELEMENTARY CO-OPERATIVES
The main feature is their recognition of individual property rights of income distribution.
60 to 70 - basis of their work;
30 to 40–dividends or rent to the factors of production
Membership was voluntary and so with withdrawal.


3. ADVANCED CO-OPERATIVES
Composed of 10 to 20 elementary cooperatives
Covered one village with 1,000 to 3,000 persons and a farm area of 300 to 800 hectares.


4. PEOPLE’S COMMUNES
had governmental, political, and economic functions.
Merge of the co-operatives and hsiang, the administrative units
A. Structure
Divided into production brigades. Then brigades were divided into production teams



B. Governance
People’s assembly elects a People’s Council consisting of 100 to 200 representatives.
Then the said council elects a REVOLUTIONARY COMMUNITTEE of 10 t0 25 members which manage the commune.
C. Function
ECONOMIC: Undertake investments and developmental programs
POLITICAL: Supervise and execute policies
SOCIAL: creates schools and hospitals
Rural Vs. Urban
Rural areas are not crowded with concrete constructions all over.
Houses are rather widely spaced with ample room for fields
and gardens.
People in rural areas live in close proximity of nature.
Apart from people, there is room for pets and other animals which helps maintain equilibrium of nature.
Agriculture is the main source of income.

Urban areas are equipped with all the modern amenities.
The modern-day facilities like the internet, telephone, television and satellite communication facilities are widely available in the urban areas.
There are also newly developing shopping complexes, theaters, food malls and restaurants found in the common places of urban cities.
Huge constructions, large housing complexes, skyscrapers, leveled parking areas and towering constructions add to the magnificence of the urban cities.

Urbanization in Less Developed World
Urbanization is the increasing number of people that migrate from rural to urban areas. It predominantly results in the physical growth of urban areas, be it horizontal or vertical. 
The rapid urbanization of the less developed countries has spawned illegal squatter settlements.
It is noted that the rapid urbanization in the less developed countries is a reflection of inadequate and inequitable economic development.
People from the countryside go to the cities in order to escape from the punishments of extreme rural poverty.
The rapid urbanization was primarily caused by the great influx of rural people to the cities in order to look for jobs.

Spanish Development Of Philippine Cities
City and Town Planning
Economic activities

During the late Spanish time, most people lived in villages located in lake shores, river banks, and other coastal communities.
They depended on rice agriculture, hunting and fishing for their livelihood.
Their socio political unit was the barangay which consisted of about 3o to 100 families headed b a datu.
Inter – island trade existed among the villages.
The major foreign traders came from Japan, China and Brunei.
Manila and Cebu were probably large agriculture and fishing villages.
By the time the Spaniards arrived the Muslims, groups in the south were already integrated.

 
Pacified areas were divided into provinces.
Civil officials headed by an alcalde mayor were assigned to govern and provide justice.
Priest were sent out to provide missions.
By 1600, Cebu, Naga, and ILOILO were all cities.

City and Town Planning
Philippine

Mexican

Construction Of Large Churches
Philippine

Mexican

Large plaza was formed in front of a church in every big city and town.

Intramurous Walls
Tondo, Maynila
In the beginning of the Spanish rule, economic activity was focused on the galleon trade.


During the final rule of the Spanish Administrators the Malacanang was built.


Parian district in Cebu
Urbanization Of Metro Manila
The population of Manila in 1903 was about 220,00.
By 1960 the population increased by 500 percent.
In 1960, almost 50 percent of the residents of Manila were born elsewhere.
Influx of people from the countryside strained housing, transportation, and welfare facilities.
It provided a labor pool to commercial and industrial firms.
Manila together with four cities and twelve towns had been converted to one urban center called Metro Manila.

Metro Manila
1960’s

2000’s

Metro Manila continues to lure people and businesses.

With the urban development program of the government, by the year 2000 about half of the total population of the country will be classified urban.
The Philippines ranks among the most rapidly urbanizing countries in the world. Currently, more than 60 per cent of its population lives in cities and this figure is expected to rise to 70 per cent by 2020.
While such rapid urbanization creates new economic opportunities for cities and their residents, it is also characterized by rising poverty, housing constraints, environmental degradation and unemployment.
There is immense pressure on Local Government Units (LGUs), who often lack the institutional and technical capacity to adopt a sustainable and strategic urban planning approach.
SINGAPORE: Model Urban Planning
Capital: Singapore
Gov’t: Par. Republic
Land area: 697square km
Population: 5.6 million (2014 estimated)
Exports: US$410.5 billion in 2013
Imports: 39591100 Thousand SGD in July of 2014
GDP per capita: US$ 61,567.28 (2013)


encountered problems like unemployment, housing, traffic, sanitation, population pressure and water and electric supply.
But all these were reduced by urban planning

HISTORY
13th century – trading settlements
1819 – Sir Stanford Raffles build a settlement in the island
1960 – 20,000 vessels used the port and likewise most of the
major airlines used its large new airport
1962 – 70,000 motor vehicles
1963 – 24,000 manufacturing firms with 54,000 workers; exports –$ 3.5M and imports-$4M

The statutory master plan translates the strategic vision of the
concept plan into detailed planning guidelines that will shape the
physical development of Singapore over the next 10-15 years.
The Urban Redevelopment Authority (URA) is Singapore's national land use planning authority.
1955 – First Master Plan
*proposals:
Improve growth of manufacturing industry
Increase number of houses(10,000/ yr)
New towns at a net density of 560 person per acre in the center area
Agricultural settlements in rural areas
Improve road system
Housing and Development Board
– 5 yr program to provide modern self-contained estates within five miles of the center of the city
*provide convenience to employees and workers
* first program: estimated 14,000 units per year
*second program; 60,000 units



A very important investment that the government did from the very beginning when the country was a young and independent country was to invest in housing. We made sure that our people had good and affordable housing. Today the home ownership in Singapore is more than 90%, and the share of rental housing is very low. These state policies have very important for social stability and building the sense of nationhood. I think that Singapore’s long-term approach to planning and public housing has been two very important pillars for us to develop to where we are today."
- Dr. Cheong, CEO of the Housing and Development Board  in Singapore


Hawker problem became rampant in World War II
- a person who travels around selling goods, typically advertising them by shouting.
Hawkers Inquiry Commission of 1950
*approach was negative in the beginning
1959 – govt. put up a place suitable for hawkers (permanent licensed premises where essential facilities like water, electricity, and proper waste disposal were available)
Advantages: offers goods at lower prices; provides employment opportunities to people with low education
Disadvantages: problems in public health, town cleaning, traffic and corruption; unfair for legitimate businessmen who pay licenses and rents



Definition of Rural Development
Rural development generally refers to the process of improving the quality of life and economic well-being of people living in relatively isolated and sparsely populated areas.
Rural development has traditionally centered on the exploitation of land-intensive natural resources such as agriculture and forestry.

Thank You! :)
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