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Broadcast TV and News

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Peter van Geldern

on 3 January 2016

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Transcript of Broadcast TV and News

Digital Film making, Broadcast TV

Production 101
Understanding Room Sound
1/21 Production overview - Project Examples
Choosing a Camera
01/28 Storytelling
1/23 Production overview 101
Video editing
3 parts to media creation:
Production & Post Production
Video Shooting
01/30 Camera & Composition
02/04 Lighting / Exercise 1
02/06 Sound / Exercise 2
02/06 Post Production & Media Work Flow
LINK TO VIMEO SCHOOL 101: vimeo.com/videoschool/101
Watch all story telling videos here
Take the mooc course here:
University Ads
University News Story
One question interviews
Program Production Overview
News show format
Back pack Journalist
Special Reporting
Music Video's
Youtube: http://www.youtube.com/user/UofBridgeport?feature=watch
shooting Dumentary style
Story Boarding
Shooting a music video
New Reporting styles
On air talent & Green screen
Green Screen Keying
Audio editing
Full FCX tuturial series
How We Learn
The Flipped Class
Mastery Learning
Prof. Peter van Geldern
Engaging young minds through the media arts digital literacy & storytelling.
Syllabus and Material
TV, video or film?
Broadcast medium where programs are distributed via land transmitters, cables or satellites
Video program
Non-broadcast television production
Traditionally meant project was shot on celluloid
Now means, shown on big screen (or straight to DVD)

Technology is changing quickly
Accepting this helps to adapt in the industry

Availability of tools/functions
Does not mean they should be used
Adding in unneeded effects
May take away from your message

Audience Impact
Does the audience understand your message
Will your project achieve the desired goals
Program making is a persuasive craft
Like marketing, advertising, etc

What are some ways to affect/impact your audience

Shooting the action
Continuous process (live to tape)
Recording everything that happens
Dividing the total action
Into series of separately recorded sequences (scenes)
Analyzing each action sequence
Separately recorded shots to create one sequence
Recording a fight from multiple angles & perspectives

Having the edge
Historically production jobs were held by engineers
Specialists in each area
Todays industry
Reliable and simple equipment has made it competitive
Requires a variety of skills
Shooting, lighting, editing, writing, directing, producing, etc
Increased use of freelancers

It’s not just academic
TV production is more than just Learning equipment
Learning the effects/impact of TV content on audiences
Example Cultivation Theory

Directing approaches
Shooting by numbers
Unusual shots – Video Clip
Allowed by new smaller cameras
Smooth sequence

The illusion of reality
The audience sees what YOU want them to see!
But you have to think about what you’re showing them
The Camera Always Lies
There can be a difference between
What is really happening
What your audience sees
What your audience thinks they’re seeing

Productions are planned based on the final visual goal

Post Production Audio
Many programs have additional sound added
Additional sounds
Can be added live during production or edited in later

Additional Image sources
Still shots
Digital video effect
Can be added during
(live) production
Post production

Complex productions
Dramas, Sit-coms, TV movies, etc
Have production schedules (based on the script)
To guide performers & crews
Help with rehearsals in order to prepare
Non-dramatic talent
News, Talk shows, etc
Due to time constraints
Typically read from a teleprompter

Sets & Scenic Design
Creates the ambience
Existing locations, built for program, virtual sets
Most shows have some type of make-up/costume
News shows/Talk shows
Make-up to reduce glare

Video Recording
Most shows are recorded for editing
Even live shows are recorded
DV Tapes, Hard Drives, Flash Memory, etc
Recorders can be
In the camera unit
Connect to the camera
In a separate location
Building, remote truck, etc.

Planning & Performance
A smooth flowing show has a director that
Understands the event
What is going to happen next
Where people are going to stand
What they are going to do

Extemporaneous situations WILL occur
But the more planning the better

Equipment has become simpler
Consumer cameras
Produce excellent video
High Def, 5.1 sound, etc
Automatic Controls
Gain, ISO, White Balance, Focus, Face detect
Plug in a mic and go… built in limiting and compression

The Foundations of

Television organizations
Broadcast - Networks & Stations
Cable & Satellite – Networks & Stations
Content & Programs
Network produced
Production company programs
Internet has allowed for greater transmission
Individuals as content providers
YouTube channels

Two forms of editing
Live editing
Post-production editing

There are TONS of different kinds of cameras
Large Network Cameras
Pro-sumer/Consumer cameras
Go Pro/POV cams
Drone cameras
Have led to a greater variety of shots, perspectives, POV’s that can be used by directors

Chapter 2

Play a role other than themselves

Actors work from an established script in CBS Television’s Hawaii Five-O.

Performer who sits at a desk or table providing consistent talent
Invited personalities, specialists or members of the public

Many television stations, due to tight budgets, have moved to one person news crews. In the above photo, the reporter not only asks the questions and holds the microphone, but is also holding the camera on her shoulder.

Responsible for writing the script
Selects compiles and cuts video & audio to produce programs

The production crew

Appear on camera as themselves

Tape Operator
Records the program
Playback pre-recorded packages, replays, video clips, etc
Also manages digital video capture & recording

Audio Mixer/Engineer
Responsible for the technical & artistic quality of the program sound
Audio Assistant
Helps with
Mics, cables,
Boom operation

Camera operator
Responsible for setting up & operating cameras
Camera assistant
Assists camera ops on big productions
Focus Puller
Adjusts focus while camera op handles composition

Lighting Director
Designs, arranges & controls all light technical & artistic

Video Operator/Tech
Responsible for quality of video
Exposure, black level, color balance, etc

Makeup Artist
Designs, prepares and applies makeup to the talent
Costume Designer
Designs & selects performers costumes

Technical Director
Usually next to the director
Operates the TV switcher
Applies effects
Lower thirds, Over the shoulder, etc

Floor/Stage manager
Directors primary representative/contact on the studio floor.
May cue performers
Direct the floor crew

Production Manager
Responsible for keeping the production within the allocated budget

Production Assistant
Helps director & producer with additional tasks needed during production

Creatively visualizes the script/event
Runs the creation of the production
Prepares & Plans for productions

Assistant/Associate Director
Has pre-production assignments to assist director with program

Executive producer
Responsible for the organization & admin of the production group
Responsible for managing a specific production
Assistant/Associate producer
Helps out the producer based on need

Graphic Designer
Designs visual elements for a show or a series

Graphics Operator
This person implements the graphics during the production

Allows for live editing of productions
Cut or Take
Instant change from one image to another
(99% of all transitions are cuts)
Gradual change from one image to the next
Novel transition that can take different shapes
A dissolve to or from black

Determined by how content is developed
Whether the show is
Live (seen by viewers as it happens)
Being recorded for editing & postproduction
Being recorded continuously
Being recorded selectively
Whether you can
Control the action you are shooting
Grab shots wherever you are able

Chapter 3

The Television Studio control room
Large multi-area control rooms
Small single room control rooms
Audio Engineer

Carefully planned process
Camera moves
Are all scripted
What are some well developed dramas you can think of

Sports programs
Variety in action flow
Fast vs slow
Large competition areas
Multiple events simultaneously

What would be a tough sport to direct?

Allows the director to insert one image onto another.
Virtual backgrounds

Examples of the Wipe patterns

The Television Studio
Designed to handle a variety of productions
Open spaces
Lighting grids
What are benefits of shooting in a TV studio?

Usually the “sitcom” format
Produced in the studio for more control
With an audience that provides reaction

Music & Dance
Basic performances
Elaborate visual presentations
Sometimes lip-synced

Interviews and talk shows
Standardized productions
Focused on speakers and reactions
Standard formats
Live on air
Anchors behind desks
Live shots

Remote Production Facilities
Remote production truck
A mobile control room
Stores production equipment

Portable flypack control rooms
Equipment that can be set up on location

When all content that has been compiled is assembled in a sequential fashion.
Mistakes corrected
Visual effects
Sound effects

The goal is a final, polished show

Visual map to help with shots & scenes
Rough sketches to organize camera treatment
Production Aspects
Need to be considered during planning stage
Production locations
Camera locations
Select talent
Hire crew
Review graphic needs

Production methods
Schedule (Important for weekly productions)
Used to establish essential deadlines
Script completion & review
Talent/Production crew roles determined
Graphics, props decided
Coverage (news example)
What will the production include?
Readers (breaking news, local news, sports, etc.)
VO’s / Packages
PSA’s / Commercials

Selective Tools
Audience sees & hears what YOU want
The camera & mic content is controlled by YOU

Selective Techniques
Provide variety to help audience
Wide shots / Close ups
Zoom ins & outs
Shot sizes
Camera movements

Production emphasis
Loose formats
Allows for a variety of changes during production
Strict format
Split second timing
Accurately Cued inserts

Production emphasis
Quiet, simple backgrounds
Focus on subjects/talent
Light effects
Wild colors
Unusual sounds
Bizarre camera angles

Director during production
Communicates with production team
Directs crew to capture audio & video
Follows production plan
Stays attentive to production flow
Adjusts for production/technical problems

The Production Meeting
Essential for the success of a production
Review of previous production
Planning of next production
Scheduling (content, script, graphics etc.)
Production roles
Budgets (if any)
Corrective procedures

Production methods
The unplanned approach
Develop idea & gather related video content
Edit content together to create meaning
Add commentary to match edited visuals
The planned approach
All elements are planned ahead of time
Locations, sound bites, graphics, camera shots, etc.
Show is developed based on predetermined plan

Planning and preparation
Why Plan
Planning keeps your production organized
The idea
Begins the process of planning
Goals & Objectives
What will your audience get from the production
The Audience
Who is this program for

Screen Transforms Reality
Viewer are provided with info cameras & mic give them
Shots can be manipulated before being presented
Interpretative production techniques
Used for dramatic effects
Using various camera angles
Quick camera moves

Producer during production
Reviews production schedule
Keeps an eye on budget
Attentive to timing of production
Communicates with director
Helps with adjustment decisions

Regular Studio Formats
Panel Discussions
Treatment breakdown
Helps flow of the production
Positioning of equipment/props
Lists camera shots & angles
Blocking & movement

Chapter 4

If show is live…not much can be done
If know during rehearsal
Possible cut or replacement of talent
If show is taped
Bad parts can be edited out

Guests are
Not relaxed
Loud & obnoxious

What are possible remedies to deal with this?

Your talent can make or break a production
Body Language

Can affect the outcome of the production

Off Camera Host
Are not seen by viewers
Offer announcing/commentary
May not even be near the event
What are some examples of off camera hosts?

Inexperienced Talent
How to handle them
Make them feel welcomed
Do it there way --> then edit results
Let them reminisce
Interview them at their place
More on page 368

Three types of talent
Amateur Talent
No experience

Pros like prepared formats
Learning lines & moves
Cue cards & teleprompters
Notes or printed scripts
Seasoned pros
Can duplicate rehearsal during taping
Can improvise & stay calm
If things go wrong

The Host
Familiar with the production routine
Can help with inexperienced talent
Explaining the production process
Moves the program along smoothly
Can help with props/objects

Important things
Put them at ease
Give clear instructions
Avoid distractions
Place items on prearranged mark
Be aware of time limits

Subject experts
May not be the best on camera presenters
Talent reading teleprompters
May seem more authentic/convincing

Street interviews
Camera may move to get best view
Like a bystander who is watching

Chapter 19

What should talent wear
Appropriateness is key
Low contrast clothes
Blue is universal (medium blue)
Watch the details
Minimal jewelry (unless your Mr. T)
Regular (street) make up is enough

Three types of talent
Professional talent
Better final project
More efficient
Univ./College Theater Students
Low cost/free
Have some training
May require more retakes

People give life to a scene
Empty sidewalk vs crowds of people
Empty bridge vs people crossing

Two of directors greatest challenges
Selecting the right talent
Helping them understand what you want
To make production successful

Definition of “Talent”
Those appearing in front of the camera
Professional performers

Those comfortable in front of the camera
Those who are new to the program

During on air production
Camera Operators
Make sure that shots are composed based on direction
Zoom in and focus quickly them frame shot
Listen to director to make adjustments
Over the shoulder shots, Two shots, etc
Be aware of when your camera is live
Make subtle adjustments if necessary
Stay with camera until show is over
Don’t lock camera when show is going
May get a sudden shot change

During on air production
Keep pace with talent reading stories
Listen to talent and adjust speed if necessary
Talent may speed up or slow down based on show timing
Make sure what is being said is visible on screen

During on air production
Audio engineer
Makes sure that proper audio source is live
Reader, VO, VOSOT, SOT
PSA/Commercial source
Keep audio levels accurate
Not too loud to avoid clipping
Not too soft to ensure clarity

During on air production
Floor director
Listens to directors commands
Communicates with talent on floor
Indicates upcoming and live cameras
Counts down to events with director
Important to avoid talent conflict with SOT’s
Provides stretch and wrap commands

During on air production
Technical director
Listens for direction from director
Pays attention to what’s live & what’s in preview
Executes name fonts when requested by director
Plays clips when directed
PSA’s, Commercials, etc
Stay prepared to make adjustments if miscues occur

During on air production
Stays with the script to ensure show flows smoothly
Be prepared for changes that may occur
Communicate with production team crew
Name fonts, ready AND take commands
Countdowns to events
Be aware of what’s on and what's coming up
Try to avoid tunnel vision

During on air production
Reviews the rundown and the live broadcast
Checks the timing of each item to keep show on track
Makes adjustments during breaks if needed
Makes sure that control room staff are updated of changes

Final scripts should be distributed to staff/crew
One to the anchors (2 or 3)
One for the director
One for AD or Production assistant
One for the producer
One for the record
One extra

Selects the stories that will be presented during news
Identifies type for each story
VO, VOSOT, Package, Reader
Prepares the rundown
Lists which anchor is reading what story
Review rundown items & timing are correct
Makes sure that all footage for show is ready
Uploaded into the switcher

Prepares the director script
Camera changes
Identifies VO’s / Packages, SOT’s, PSA’s
Name fonts
Marks countdowns to events
Anticipates possible changes
Prepares for crisis
Ready to adjust on the fly
Able to remain calm when things go wrong

During on air production
Read stories on teleprompter
Anticipate changes
Try to remain smooth
Try to avoid overreacting or getting upset
Watch floor director cues
For countdowns and camera changes
Speak clearly when reading stories
Keep script handy in case prompter fails

News is
immediately responsive to events
News programs
Use more high tech equipment for presentation
Usually run at a fast pace
Stories tend to be shorter than print/magazine news

News program
Most stories presented are current
Local, regional, national & international topics
That are newsworthy

Chapter 9 + more

13. Technical Issues
If there is a technical problem, it is probably YOU!
The camera is not broken.
The microphone and tripod DO work.
99% of all technical problems are user related.
Know how to troubleshoot your equipment!

12. Interviews
Begin recording any interview with,
“Say your name and spell it.”
This is a great way to test your audio levels, while recording the correct spelling of their name.
And then spell their name correctly on the lower thirds in post-production.

Basic editing techniques
Edit at LEAST 3 different shots of B-Roll together in a series
Don’t put 2 of the same CAM angles back to back
(MS-MS or WS-WS or CU-CU)
3-5 seconds long for each shot.
Show a sequence
WS = wide shot
MS = medium shot
CU = close up (tight shot)

10. Audio
Check your AUDIO levels on the camera and the mic if needed.
Poor audio will ruin your package

8. Editing
Always shoot with editing in mind.
Look for the action shots, the reaction shots, and interesting activities/people.
Motion = Emotion!
Don’t shoot inanimate objects and use as your BRoll.
Action – Reaction

7. Your stand up
Look nice on camera. Dress Professional.
You MUST do a stand up intro/outro for your news package.
Greeting, Name, Location
Name, Station ID
KCTH Channel 27

6. Lighting
Light goes behind the camera; don’t leave your subjects in the dark.
Light behind subject creates silhouetting

5. Interview subjects
Make sure ANYONE you interview,
Is also included in at least a few shots of your BROLL footage.

4. Establishing shot.
Get one.
Don’t assume viewers know where you are or what you’re talking about.

3. Position
Have subjects stand at least one foot from the background.
It looks way more interesting.
Creates Depth of field

2. Get good shots
Get wide, medium and tight
Of every single shot,
At least 10 seconds from each distance.

1. Start your video with
NAT Sound and B-ROLL.
Therefore, look for great NAT Sound and B-ROLL opportunities on the shoot.

News package #1 assignments are due
WITH script
On March 27 (or before)
Any news package that is not received by that WITH a properly formatted script will not receive a score on the assignment.
Review guidelines in the syllabus for news package development.
Topics MUST be relevant to the Chabot College TV audience.
(If you have to ask, it’s probably not relevant enough)

Test your equipment BEFORE you leave for the shoot.
Battery (bring 2)
Tape/SD card
Faulty equipment = a BIG headache

One shot is progressively replaced by another shot in a geometric pattern.
There are many types of wipe, from straight lines to complex shapes.

Mix / Dissolve / Crossfade
These are all terms to describe the same transition — a gradual fade from one shot to the next.
Fades the shot to a single colour, usually black or white.
The "fade to black" and "fade from black" are ubiquitous in film and television.
They usually signal the beginning and end of scenes.

Live Editing
In some situations multiple cameras and other video sources are routed through a central mixing console and edited in real time.
Live television coverage is an example of live editing.

Digital/Computer (Non-linear)
In this method, video footage is recorded (captured) onto a computer hard drive and then edited using specialized software.
Once the editing is complete, the finished product is recorded back to tape or optical disk.

Give the video a particular "angle"
Video can be tailored to support a particular viewpoint, impart a message or serve an agenda.

Alter the style, pace or mood of the video
A good editor will be able to create subtle mood prompts in a video.
Techniques such as mood music and visual effects can influence how the audience will react.

Add effects, graphics, music, etc
This is often the "wow" part of editing.
You can improve most videos (and have a lot of fun) by adding extra elements.

Choose the best footage
It is common to shoot far more footage than you actually need and choose only the best material for the final edit.
Often you will shoot several versions (takes) of a shot and choose the best one when editing.

The Goals of Editing
There are many reasons to edit a video and your editing approach will depend on the desired outcome.
Before you begin you must clearly define your editing goals, which could include any of the following:

Create a flow
Most videos serve a purpose such as telling a story or providing information.
Editing is a crucial step in making sure the video flows in a way which achieves this goal.

Remove unwanted footage
This is the simplest and most common task in editing.
Many videos can be dramatically improved by simply getting rid of the flawed or unwanted bits

Lower Thirds
In video and television, the lower third refers to the lower portion of the frame which contains graphical information such as station ID, name/title keys, etc.

The most common transition — an instant change from one shot to the next.
The raw footage from your camera contains cuts between shots where you stop and start recording
(unless of course you use built-in camera transitions).

Tape to Tape (Linear)
Linear editing was the original method of editing electronic video tapes, before editing computers became available in the 1990s.
Although it is no longer the preferred option, it is still used in some situations.

Lower thirds & Transitions

The Jump Cut
A jump cut is a transition between two shots which appears to "jump" due to the way the shots are framed in relation to each other.
Jump cuts are usually caused by framing which is quite similar, such as these two:

Speak  or  look  at  this  camera
For the hand signal to “speak or look at this camera,” the floor manager  points  to  the  on-air  camera with his hand. A waving  motion  from  one  camera  to another alerts the talent that the   director is switching the shot to another on-air camera

Speak more softly
For the hand signal to “speak more softly,” the floor manager raises the palm of his hand to his mouth.
 Speak up
For the hand signal to “speak up,” the floor manager cups his ear with his hand.

15 seconds to go/wrap it up.
For the hand signal that there are 15 seconds   remaining in the show/segment and the talent  should wrap up what he is doing, the floor  manager creates a grabbing motion with his hand that results in a fist.

For the hand signal that “everything is fine,” the floor manager makes a circle with his thumb and forefinger.
30 seconds to go
For the hand signal that there are 30 seconds remaining in the show/segment, the floor  manager forms the letter T with both hands.

For  the  hand signal  to  “stretch  it”  or “slow down,” the floor manager pulls his hands apart  as  if  stretching a rubber band. Longer amounts  of  time  are  indicated  when  the  floor manager places his hands farther apart at the end of the stretching motion; shorter time amounts are indicated when the floor manager places his hands  closer  together.

For  the  hand  signal  to “cease  talking” or “stop action,” the floor manager draws his hand across his throat in a slashing motion.
Speed up
For the hand signal to “talk faster,” the floor   manager rotates his arm and hand clockwise in a circle above his head. The speed of the rotations are related to the urgency of time.

Stand by
For the hand signal to “stand by,” the floor  manager  raises  his  hand  and  arm  at  the beginning of the show or following a spot break
For  the  hand  signal  to  “start  talking”  or “begin  action,”  the  floor  manager  raises  his  hand and points to the talent.

Speak more softly
For the hand signal to “speak more softly,” the floor manager raises the palm of his hand to his mouth.
 Speak up
For the hand signal to “speak up,” the floor manager cups his ear with his hand.

15 seconds to go/wrap it up.
For the hand signal that there are 15 seconds   remaining in the show/segment and the talent  should wrap up what he is doing, the floor  manager creates a grabbing motion with his hand that results in a fist.

For the hand signal that “everything is fine,” the floor manager makes a circle with his thumb and forefinger.
30 seconds to go
For the hand signal that there are 30 seconds remaining in the show/segment, the floor  manager forms the letter T with both hands.

For  the  hand signal  to  “stretch  it”  or “slow down,” the floor manager pulls his hands apart  as  if  stretching a rubber band. Longer amounts  of  time  are  indicated  when  the  floor manager places his hands farther apart at the end of the stretching motion; shorter time amounts are indicated when the floor manager places his hands  closer  together.

For  the  hand  signal  to “cease  talking” or “stop action,” the floor manager draws his hand across his throat in a slashing motion.
Speed up
For the hand signal to “talk faster,” the floor   manager rotates his arm and hand clockwise in a circle above his head. The speed of the rotations are related to the urgency of time.

Stand by
For the hand signal to “stand by,” the floor  manager  raises  his  hand  and  arm  at  the beginning of the show or following a spot break
For  the  hand  signal  to  “start  talking”  or “begin  action,”  the  floor  manager  raises  his  hand and points to the talent.

Speak  or  look  at  this  camera
For the hand signal to “speak or look at this camera,” the floor manager  points  to  the  on-air  camera with his hand. A waving  motion  from  one  camera  to another alerts the talent that the   director is switching the shot to another on-air camera

The key to obtaining great story coverage.
Asking the right questions when interviewing
Don’t shy away from asking a player or a coach what his/her rational was behind a bad play.
Talk about the big plays, but don’t forget to discuss what led up to them. Who were the playmakers?

With team sports there is a built-in interest
because of the complexity of the teams working together.

Individual sports also have their advantages.
The director can increase the emotional level by concentrating on close-up production techniques

Directing Stop & Go
The need to maintain audience interest during timeout periods is the primary challenge.
Pauses in action are frequent and sometimes very long (at least from the viewers’ standpoint).
Replay devices have provided an excellent production value for such periods.

Directing style during action elements of a sporting event must be basically invisible.
Directors must place themselves in the position of the audience to show them what they need and want to see.

The key to good interviewing is to find the things that aren't so obvious.
Interviewers should strive to get responses that tell us something we don‘t know or something that adds a level of depth to the scene.
Ken Colemen and Brad Schultz

Former athletes or coaches
Often chosen for the role of analyst since an in-depth knowledge of the sport is required.

The play-by-play person (Bill Schonley)
Describes who the athletes are & what they are doing

Sport should be fun, and I want viewers to share in the enjoyment I get from the games.
But I also owe it to those same viewers to be thoroughly prepared and to know what I am talking about.
Chris Berman, Commentator, ESPN

If the sport provides a conflict
(such as tennis or boxing)
Coverage may concentrate on the dominant player
always be the winning player.

Example -
loser who is suffering from injury or
losing control
of a match may be the story the
director wants
to cover.

Directing Continuous Sports
Quicker pace of camera changes
Continuous action contest provides little or no time to interrupt for color analysis and replay.
Few natural breaks for commercial insertion or for the audience to take a break in their viewing

Program sound
Gathered using mic
Clipped onto clothing
Attached to boom
Full transcript