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Acculturization And Nativization Model

This workshop is part of PostGraduate Discipline called Foreign Language Acquisition
by

Paulo Crespo Pereira

on 31 May 2014

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Transcript of Acculturization And Nativization Model

The Role of Theory in SLA Research
Seven Theories of Second Language Acquisition
The Nativization Model
Andersen builds on Schumann's acculturation model, in particular by providing a cognitive dimension which Schumann does not consider. He, to a much greater extent, is concerned with learning processes. Andersen sees two general forces; nativization and denativization. Nativization consists of assimilation while denativization involves accomodation.

Evaluation; The acculturation and nativist models focus on the power mechanisms of SLA. They provide explanations of why L2 learners, unlike first language learners, often fail to achieve a native-like competence. The acculturation and nativization Models address naturalistic SLA, where the L2 learners has contact with the target language community.
Summing Up
The Acculturation and Nativist models focus on the power mechanisms of SLA. They provide explanations of why L2 learners, unlike first language learners, often fail to achieve a native-like competence. L2 learners may be cut off from the necessary input as a result of social distance, or they may fail to attend to it as a result of psychological distance.

The Acculturation and Nativization Models address naturalistic SLA, where the L2 learner has contact with the target language community. It is not clear whether the models are also applicable to classroom SLA (i.e. foreign language instruction), where no such contact is possible.
The Acculturazation Model
Brown (1980) defined 'as the process of becoming adapted to a new culture'. In addition, an elaborated version of Schumann's model--the Nativization Model-- is discussed, with reference to Andersen (1980;1981;1983b) “... second language acquisition is just one aspect of acculturation and the degree to which a learner acculturates to the target language group will control the degree to which he acquires the second language.(Schumann 1978:34)
Acculturation, and hence SLA determined by the degree of social and psychological distance between the learner and the language culture. Schumann (1978b) lists the various factors that determined them. The social variables govern whether the learning is 'good' or 'bad' . The psychological factors are effective in nature. They include 1) language shock 2) culture shock 3) motivation and 4) ego boundaries.
SLA
Acculturation & Nativization Model
Aquisição de Lingua Estrangeira
Professor Marcelo Saparas

1.
The description
: the characterization of the nature of the linguistic
categories which constitute the learner’s inter-language at any point in development (what, when, and how acquired).

2.
The explanation
: to discover why the learner develop the particular linguistic that he does. Function of theory or what theory is a theory for? The theory is for : observational adequacy, descriptive adequacy and explanatory adequacy.

And they are:

Acculturation Model
(closely associate with it, The
Nativization Model
)
Accommodation Theory
Discourse Theory
The Monitor Model
The Variable Competence Model
The Universal Hypothesis
A Neurofunctional Theory
CONTEXTUALIZATION
INPUT DATA
INTAKE
OUTPUT
CONVERT
KNOWLEDGE
ACQUISITON
MOTIVATION
CEASE LEARNING (FOSSILIZATION)
The Acculturation Model
process of becoming adapted to a new culture
“... second language acquisition is
just one aspect of acculturation
and the degree to which a learner
acculturates to the target language
group will control the degree
to which he acquires the second
language.(Schumann 1978:34)
SOCIAL
PSYCHOLOGICAL
FACTORS
NATIVE
SOCIAL
GROUP
TARGET
LANGUAGE
GROUP
INDIVIDUAL
FACTORS
SOCIAL

TARGET
LANGUAGE

GOOD LEARNING SITUATIONS
1. socially equal
2. desire to assimilate
3. share facilities
4. L2 small and not very cohesive
5.similar culture
6. positive attitudes
7. plans to stay an extended period in L2
BAD LEARNING SITUATIONS
1. socially equal
2. desire to assimilate
3. share facilities
4. L2 small and not very cohesive
5.similar culture
6. positive attitudes
7. plans to stay an extended period in L2
1. language shock
2. culture shock
3. motivation
4. ego boundaries
the learner will receive very little L2 input
psychological distance = great -> fail to convert available input into intake.
social and psychological distance = great -> fail to progress beyond the early stages -> pidgnized
The Role of Theory in SLA Research
Seven Theories of Second Language Acquisition
1.
The description
learners' inter-language
what, when, and how acquired

2.
The explanation





Acculturation Model

The

Nativization Model
Accommodation Theory
Discourse Theory
The Monitor Model
The Variable Competence Model
The Universal Hypothesis
A Neurofunctional Theory
CONTEXTUALIZATION
Pidginization Hyphothesis
the learner was subject to a high degree of social distance and failed to progress very far in learning English.
his English was characterized by many of the forms observed in pidgins.
no + V' negatives;
uninverted interrogatives;
the absence of possessive;
plural inflections;
restricted verb morphology.

"pidginization may
characterize alI early
second language
acquisition and ... under
conditions of social and psychological distance it
persists" (SHUMANN)
when pidginization persists the learner fossilizes.
he no longer revises his interlanguage system in the direction of the target language.
the degree of acculturation leads to pidgin-like language in two ways:
level of input that the learner receives the L2
the functions which the learner wishes to use the L2 for.
Three broad functions of language
1. communicative function
2. integrative function
3. expressive function
L2 learners will seek to use the L2 for the communicative function
pidgins and interlanguages which fossilize in the early stages of development remain restricted to the communicative function
native speakers of the target language use it for both the communicative and integrative functions, as wilI those L2 learners who do not fossilize early on, but many native speakers and L2 learners will never aspire to master the expressive uses of language.
The Nativization Model
Schummann
Andersen
not concerned about internal processing mechanisms
concerned with the learning processes
NATIVIZATION
DENATIVIZATION
assimilation
accomodation
growth independent
of the external norm
growth towards
an external norm
pidginization
despidginization
restricted access to input
adequate access to input
creation of a unique first/second
language acquisition
first/second language as increasing approximation
towards external 'target' norm
Evaluation
The Acculturation and Nativist models
• focus on the power mechanisms of SLA

• why L2 learners often fail to achieve a native-like competence

• L2 learners may be cut off from the necessary input as a result of social distance

• they may fail to attend to it as a result of psychological distance

• the notions of 'internal' and 'external norms' explain why early and late interlanguage systems are so very different.
• neither model shows how L2 knowledge is internalized and used
the theory of SLA needs to consider HOW input becomes INTAKE and HOW this is integrated into the existing interlanguage system

Andersen suggests that the internal mechanisms play a crucial part

Neither Schumann nor Andersen pays attention to the effects of input/interaction

Missing in these models the interaction between situation and learner

The Acculturation and Nativization Models address naturalistic SLA, where the L2 learner has contact with the target language community. It is not clear whether the models are also applicable to classroom SLA, where no such contact is possible. Presumably the factors responsible for social distance are not relevant in foreign language learning, although those responsible for psychological distance may be.
That's it!
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