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The Philosophy Tree

AP English Part 1 by Nick Claymore & Nicole Bilyeu

Nick Claymore

on 6 September 2013

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Transcript of The Philosophy Tree

The Philosophy Tree
By: Nick Claymore & Nicole Bilyeu

The Renaissance
The Middle Ages
The Baroque
Defined as:
A school of ancient Greek philosophers, the Cynics. Who believed in motivation purely by self-interest.
Main Ideas
The ideal life focuses on self-development, especially the pursuit of goodness, virtue, justice, integrity, and friendship. Materialism is the enemy of achieving the ideal life.
The art of repeatedly asking questions (the Socratic method) of oneself and others leads to knowledge, since it enables one to refine his beliefs.
He believed that it is by realizing how little we know that we can eventually gain true knowledge, since preconceived untrue beliefs make it difficult to find the truth.
He believed in the immortality of the soul.
His major project was working on the socratic method
Main Ideas
The physical and intelligible worlds exist simultaneously.
Humans have appetites, emotions, and reason. The better part should rule.
Good and evil are states of the soul
There is no afterlife, even the soul is made of atoms.
No fear in humans
Life should pass pleasantly in friendship.
Rene Descartes
Baruch Spinoza

The philosophy of Aristotle that deals with logic. metaphysics, ethics, poetics, politics and natural science.

Main Ideas
Aristotelian logic which was the earliest study of formal logic meaning he started to write in a more qualitative matter.
He believed in cause and effect and that there were four main causes of change in nature they were material, formal, efficient, and final.
He had an idea about universals, he said they were all "instantiated" and that no universals are unattached to existing things.
St. Augustine
Main Ideas:
The mind is its own entity from the
body, therefore sensation and perception of reality is considered
an illusion.
Main Ideas
sense perception is not reliable
there is no body but only a brain fed with information
science is based on reason
reason is the essence of humanity
3 wordly existences: physical body, mind, & God
John Locke
Main Ideas
Why does evil exist in the world? He believes this is because of human action.
He believed in free will and responsibility and how it causes human suffering all around the world.
Philosophers before Augustine had a strong belief that certainty was impossible, but he found that to be inaccurate and believed the idea that certainty is possible.
St. Thomas Aquinas
David Hume
George Berkeley
Immanuel Kant
Friedrich Schelling
Georg Hegel
Soren Kierkegaard
The system of theological and philosophical teaching predominant in the Middle Ages, based chiefly upon the authority of the church fathers and of Aristotle and his commentators.
A philosophical system, originated in the 3rd century a.d. by Plotinus, founded chiefly on Platonic doctrine and Oriental mysticism, with later influences from Christianity. It holds that all existence consists of emanations from the One with whom the soul may be reunited.

The belief that physical objects are impermanent representations of unchanging Ideas, and that the Ideas alone give true knowledge as they are known by the mind.
The theory of the heliocentric model, that the planets including Earth orbit the Sun, in contrast to geocentrism.
A belief that the universe was relating to, measured from, or with respect to the center of the earth.
Galileo followed the path of copernicus who believed in the fundamental theoretical basis of modern astronomy, first demonstrated in the early 16th century by Copernicus, who showed that the earth and the other planets orbit around the sun
He followed the doctrine of the universe as expounded in Newton's mathematical theory of universal gravitation. It layed the foundation of The Enlightenment
Reason is the sole source of
test and knowledge. Truth is
not sensory but it is thoughtful and deductive
British Empiricism
Knowledge strictly derived
from senses
Main Ideas:
A primary substance is the essential nature of something.
He thought there was a definite difference between the idea that the soul was part of the material of the body and part of the form.
Aquinas thought that the idea of omnipotence has been misunderstood. While the laws of nature were created by God and reason given to human beings as a capacity for deriving truth, Thomas doesn’t think that God has the ability to defy logic.
Aquinas delineated the basic human drives into “the will” and “desires.” Desires are all sensual appetites that derive from the senses.
Saint Aquinas thought that moral action was best defined by the object of the external activity and the goal of the action.
Main Ideas:
He stated the earth moved around the sun.
He thought that the sun was the center of the universe.
Also he believed the earth and other planets moved in circular orbits around the sun.
Main Ideas:
Planets move in elliptical or oval orbits with the sun at its focus.
Speed of a planet is greatest when it is closest to the sun
The farther a planet's orbit is from the sun the slower it moves.
He emphasized the same physical laws apply everywhere throughout the universe.
Main Ideas:
He studied the moon's craters and said the moon had mountains and valley's similar to earth.
Galileo discovered jupiter had four moons.
The most important contribution of galileo was the Law of Inertia: "A body remains in the state which it is in, at rest or in motion as long as no external force compels it to change its state.".
Main Ideas:
He came up with the Law of Universal Gravitation, which is a law that says every object attracts every other object with a force that increases in proportion to the size of the objects and decreases in proportion to the distance between the objects
He found that every reaction has an equal and opposite reaction.
He discovered the theory that the earth has a downward pull force on every object which keeps it stationed to the ground, known as gravity.
He discovered the three laws of motion.
Believed that there was only one substance
Everything that exists can be reduced to one single reality which he simply called substance
Said that we humans recongize two of God's qualities or manifestations, thought or extension
All material things and things that happen around us are an expression of God or nature
God - or the laws of nature- is the inner cause of everything that happens
The Enlightenment
Main Beliefs
Before we perceive anything, the mind is a 'tabula rasa'--- or an empty slate.
The only things we can perceive are simple sensations.
Knowledge that cannot be traced back to simple sensation is therefore false knowledge and must be rejected.
Believed it was inherent in human reason to be able to know that God exists.
Believed the idea of God was born of human reason.
Humean Empiricism
The idea that it is our knowledge, and not our ability to conceive, that is restricted to what can be experienced.
Main Ideas
Man has two different types of perceptions, impressions and ideas. By 'impressions' he means the immediate sensation of external reality. By 'ideas' he means the recollection of such impressions.
We sometimes form complex ideas for which there is no corresponding object in the physical world.
All the elements we put together in our ideas must at some time have entered the mind in the form of 'simple impressions'.
The perception of the ego is in reality a long chain of simple impressions that you have never experiences simultaneously.
It is not reason that determines what we say and do; it is our sentiments.
subjective idealism
Only minds and mental contents exist.
Main beliefs
The only things that exist are those we perceive.
Thought all our ideas have a cause beyind out consciousness, but that this cause is not of a material nature. It is spiritual.
Believed that our own perception of time and space can also be merely figments of the mind.
Phenomenal knowledge is the joint product of percepts given to us through sensations organized under the forms of intuition of space and time.
Main beliefs:
All our knowledge of the world comes from our sensations.
Time and condition belong to the human condition.
It is not only mind which conforms to things. Things also conform to the mind.
Reason operates beyond the limits of what we humans can comprehend.
Believed that we cannot expect to understand what we are.
As material creatures, we are wholly and fully at the mercy of casuality's unbreakable law.
Places ultimate reality in ideas rather than in things and that uses dialectic to comprehend an absolute idea behind phenomena.
Main beliefs
The basis of human cognition changed from one generation to the next.
Human knowledge is constantly expanding and progressing.
The study of history shows that humanity is moving toward greater rationality and freedom.
Believed that the individual was an organic part of the community.
It is not the individual that finds itself, it is the world spirit.
Asserts that reality, or reality as we can know it, is fundamentally mental, mentally constructed, or otherwise immaterial.
Main beliefs
All of nature--- both the human soul and physical reality--- is the expression of one Absolute, or world spirit.
Matter is slumbering intelligence.
Man bears the whole universe within himself and comes to the mystery of the world by stepping inside himself.
Believed that the world id 'in God.' God is aware of some of it, but there are other aspects of nature which represent the unknown in God.
Philosophical thinking begins with the human subject—not merely the thinking subject, but the acting, feeling, living human individual.
Main beliefs
Truth is 'subjective.'
Things we know through reason, or knowledge are unimportant.
There are 3 different forms of life. The aesthetic stage, the ethical stage, and the religious stage.
The religious stage was Christianity.
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