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Transcript of Biotechnology
Late 1800s: Frog skin was grafted onto a patient in an attempt to heal burns or skin ulcers
1963-1965: Chimpanzee kidneys are transplanted into 13 patients; one survived for 9 months after the operation
1964: First cardiac transplant attempt to put a chimpanzee's heart into a human; failed because heart was too small to support the patients circulation
1977: Christiaan Barnard tried to used a baboon and chimpanzee heart to temporary back up pumps for in 2 patients that did not have functioning hearts; surgery failed
1984: Baby Fae born premature with a malformed heart received a heart of a baboon but only survived 20 more days
1997:Clinical trial using pig fetal nerve cells in patients with Parkinson's disease indicated some success.
*All of these attempts have failed, xenotransplantation has never been successfully performed without causing many side effects. Current State of Research Animals being tested on currently Pros and Cons Will significantly reduce the shortage in organ donors
A pigs life is taken, instead of a humans
Can be used as a temporary fix until a suitable organ donor is found Pig organs have a shorter life span
Possible rejection of foreign organ
Increases risk of diseases
Religious beliefs oppose pigs. DNA Mircroinjection Introduction transgenic animals: animals that have had a deliberate modification of the genome
three proven methods are; DNA mircoinjection, embryonic stem cell- mediated gene transfer and retrovirus- mediated gene transfer
success rate is low for all techniques
some are produced for economic traits, others to be disease models for humans
xenoplantation: a process where animal tissue, organs, and cells are transplanted into humans for medical reason Pros Cons Future Possibilities May become an important factor to aid in the treatment of major diseases like Cancer and Parkinson’s. Cells from animals that have stronger lymphatic systems could be transplanted so these diseases would be treatable.
More research could potentially allow humans to be the recipients of animal tissue and cells and organs. This may allow humans to become more resilient to some conditions and can possibly adopt some animal traits. By: Jesse, Erica, Dave, Nikhil
Xenotransplantation offers a good solution to medical patients in need of organ donors
The concept was pioneered a century ago
Re-emerged in 1960s when large advancements in immunology were made Social/Ethical Implications And Issues Why Genetically Modifying Pigs Is Okay:
*Can save lots of people
*Cheap and endless supply of organs
*Can replace volunteers at clinical trials
*We already eat them, why not use them to save lives?
*There are rules in place so as to minimize pain for the pigs
*Can help all of society Why Genetically Modifying pigs is wrong:
*Won't accept themselves as "human"
*Closer to harming animals than healing anything
*"Deliberate infliction of pain"
*Prejudiced to say that we are better than pigs
*Scientist just want fame, funders just want money
*We use animals because we can abuse them
*Bred under strict conditions
*Mother is killed when pigs are born (ceserean section)
*Most piglets turn out bad and can't be released into the wild (killed)
*Over 70 million animals killed in these experiments, barely anyone benefited History of Xenotransplantation Ghandi once said "A society's morality can be determined by its treatment of animals" Bibliography: www.naturalnews.com
Louis, P.F. "Medical science May use Genetically Modified Pigs To Grow Human Replacement Organs"
Sample, Ian. "Red Tape Blocks UK Research On Replacement Organs"
PBS/Frontline. "Interview: Dan Lyons"
Alleyne, Richard. "Animal To Human Organ Transplants Come Closer After GM Pig Breakthrough"
Canada's Public Health Leader. "Ethical And Social Issues Raised By Xenotransplantation"
Cowan, Peter. "Xenotransplantation: using pigs as organ and tissue donors for humans"
Samdani, Tushar. "Xenotransplantation"
"Pros and Cons of xenotransplantation" The End We Hope You learned Stuff!
(._.) Why Pigs? Primates ruled out for practical and ethnically reasons
Primates are capable of carrying viruses capable of infecting humans (HIV, AIDS)
Pigs can be raised in a clean environment (lowers risks of infections)
Already wildly breed for food industry
Materials from pigs are safely and routinely used for medical reasons already
animal models Suggest that most pig organs will work properly in human recipients Pigs,mice,rats, rabbit. Pigs specifically targeted Animals will be bred or clones so they are produced
with a deficiency of the sugar gene which will allow
their tissues, cells and organs to be accepted by the
human body -Pig organs are similar sized to human organs
-So genetically modified pigs are used for harvesting organs for future organ transplant
Xenotransplantation: the process where organs, tissue, cells from a nonhuman source are transplanted into humans for medical reasons
Xenostransplantion products must be alive
Products include those from transgenic and nontransgenic animals Transgenetic pig sperm was created for modified pigs Other experiments.. -Idea of breeding pigs to create 6 human genes
-Human stem cells placed in embryos of pigs to not grow their own organs, but human like organs more experiments done.. -Human stem cells placed in embryos of pigs to not grow their own organs, but human like organs -Using patient’s stem cell to be placed in an embryo of a pig reduces risk during organ transplant -Technique called blastocyst complementation
-Injecting human blood stem cells into pigs, pigs were able to create human blood What is currently happening -Organs rejected in bodies are foreign objects
-Fixing up a few problems, such as diseases the pigs may carry onto humans -Experiments were done in 1990s, but dropped as many failures occurred
-Many researchers moved to US because of smaller amounts of regulations. When Could This Technology Become Available?
Depends on interest and support of the public
more support means more funds
Increased research means a faster discovery of a way to make it successful What Is It?