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Meiosis - Period 2 Group 2
Transcript of Meiosis - Period 2 Group 2
& Sexual Reproduction
Dive into the microscopic world of meiosis as you find out how organisms reproduce!
Created by your friendly neighborhood AP Biology students:
Period 2 Group 2
*cue 80's disco synthetic music to make presentation snazzier*
Gather up these materials before you start this super cool activity!
You need red and blue clay (Ask Mr. Velekei for Play-Doh).
Paper & Scissors
String & Scissors
The clay will be used to make the chromosomes!
This will act as the cell!
You will need to cut out a large oval shape using one piece of white paper.
A piece of string will be used as the spindle fibers that will pull apart the chromosomes during anaphase!
Roll out four pieces of
clay into a snake shape. Two should be long (~3 ½ inches) and two should be short (~2 ½ inches).
Cut out four 4-5 inches of string for the spindle fibers.
Lay down the piece of oval-shaped white paper that will act as the cell.
Connect the two long pieces together near the center and do the same for the short pieces!
Repeat this step for the
You should end up with 4 pairs of chromosomes and spindle fibers. In this phase, each chromosome is replicated to form double-stranded chromosomes.
Cross one chromatid with the other color chromatid, so they connect each other. This state is called the
Meiosis is actually very similar to mitosis in the sense that they both go through "I.P.M.A.T."
However, meiosis does
does not repeat interphase
Pair up each chromosome with its
chromosome (same length, but different color).
The pairing of these chromosomes will produce two tretrads. A
is a group of four sister chromatids (two pairs of chromosomes).
Each color will represent the chromosome of a parent (
At the point(s) where they cross, cut it with scissors and exchange the piece(s) of chromatids.
This step is called
Take the four strings (spindle fibers) you cut earlier and loosely tie one to each of the four sister chromatids.
Line up the pairs of homologous chromosomes side by side at the
(middle of the cell).
is a process during meiosis where two chromosomes pair up and exchange sections of their genetic material.
Drag each pair of homologous chromosomes away from each other to separate them!
Telophase 1 & Cytokinesis
End of Meiosis 1
Remove the strings from the chromosomes.
...and cut the paper in half to form two new cells!
is the most similar to mitosis, in comparison to meiosis 1, but there are two cells this time!
Telophase & Cytokinesis:
End of Meiosis 2
During prophase 2, the spindles start to form so prepare four more pieces of string!
Line up the chromosomes at the metaphase plate and loosely tie the pieces of string to each of the four chromosomes.
Pull the sister chromatids from away from each other, while going towards the opposite poles.
Remove the strings from the chromosomes!
Cut each paper in half again to form four cells.
The cells are in
, where each of the four daughter cells are genetically different from one another!
*Note that we have two sets of chromosomes: one set from the father (
) and one set from the mother (
). Each set was originally from a single cell called a
are reproductive cells, such as sperm or eggs. They are also haploid cells, meaning they only have ONE set of chromosomes each. Every other cell that isn't a gamete are called
When a sperm fuses with an egg, it creates a
, which is a fertilized egg! This process is known as
Since a zygote has chromosomes from two gametes now, it is considered a
, meaning it has TWO sets of chromosomes!
Fun fact! A
is a display of the chromosome pairs of a cell arranged by size and shape.
Do you see those X and Y chromosomes? Those are called
The other chromosomes are called
Know that meiosis doesn't occur in all cells! Only diploid cells undergo this process since they have enough chromosomes to
Other organisms, such as plants, fungi, and bacteria, go through
, where a clone of the parent organism is made instead of offspring due to no exchange of genetic material.
Questions # 2
Questions # 3
Questions # 4
How many chromosomes are in...?
Take the following mini-quiz to test your basic knowledge!
Questions # 1
What is the difference between...?
Has this presentation successfully allowed you to grasp the idea of
meiosis and sexual reproduction
The lining of the chromosomes does not have to be in a specific order. It is random, which creates and
is the process of random assortment of chromosomes during anaphase I of meiosis. This is important because it results in a variety of genetically unique gametes.
In other words, with independent assortment, offspring are able to receive different sets of genes, resulting in different looking people!
similar to mitosis?
meiotic anaphase 2
Module - Fantasy is Real
Perturbator - Miami Disco