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Future Flight Design Project
Transcript of Future Flight Design Project
flight and how we made our aircraft.
Also it is about some of the problems
we had while making our aircraft and
how we had some similarities to the people at NASA. Each team picked a mission/problem to make a aircraft based on the problem. Our mission/problem was to transport 5 people in a fast but safe aircraft that will take those 5 people through a city in 30 minutes 25 miles away to attend a game. Our Aircraft price
should be below $250,000 our
problem was called short
hop. The Four Forces are Lift, Thrust, Drag and Weight.
These forces help in the aircraft because lift keeps the airplane flying, the thrust pushes the airplane forward and so it can go faster. The Drag keeps the aircraft from going forward and keeps it back. The weight helps the airplane land and keeps it from going to high. If you are missing one of the four forces your plane will not work properly for example if your are missing thrust your aircraft will not move forward and you will have to start all over. Another thing is that all the forces have to be even because if they're not even then your airplane I guess will not work because you will have some features but other ones will not work for example, if you only had lift on your plane and no thrust then your plane would just standstill. Lift Drag Drag is a part of the four forces and it is caused by air molecules hitting a solid object and creating resistance called drag which keeps the object from moving forward. In designing our aircraft we reduced drag by making our airplane in more of a aerodynamic design by making our aircraft slim and less bulky to reduce the drag. There is also a special type of wing called airfoil to make it more dynamic and help in the lift. Lift is one of the four forces and a really important force for a aircraft to fly with. Somethings that will help you in creating lift are wings and propellers because they basically lift the airplane in the air. Rotters also help in the elevation of the aircraft. We created lift in my aircraft by having wings and propellers and a strong engine to power the wings and rotters. That is how we created lift on our plane. Air Foil Design The Four Forces Future Flight Design Thrust Thrust is a part of the four forces and is important. Thrust is important for a aircraft because the thrust is the main force that helps the plain move forward and with out it you could not move! You can increase the thrust by having a strong engine which will push the fuselage forward. Wings on some planes also help create thrust. Weight Weight is also an important part of the aircraft because the weight is the only force that lands the airplane on the ground. If you had to much lift and no weight you could have no way to land on the ground! Some things that can help you create more lift is making your airplane with a little bit of heavy material, but not to heavy! It has to be small and compact and compact, because it needs to fly through the city. The plane also has to be fuel efficient, stable and fast because we only have 30 min. It should be quiet and create less down-wash because our aircraft will fly through the city. It needs to
because then the plane will be stable and fly right. It should also have a small fuselage and should not have a really powerful engine because of is a really short distance to the destination and we are not carrying much cargo. Criteria Constraints Lift Lab This section is about lift like how to create lift and what parts help in creating lift. Well, the parts that help in creating lift are the wing which is probably the main part that helps the lift of the plane. Also there is a special design called the airfoil design they use in the making of the plane which makes the wing more aerodynamic that helps the plane mostly in the help of thrust. Some factors that are important in the design are the size because we do not want to make our plane to big because it is flying through the city. Another factor that is important is the environment because since it is in the city there will be a lot of constraints like not make to much down wash and make less noise. Our power of the engine should not be that powerful as well because the plain will not carry much weight. For a aircraft it can move up by propellers and routers, but it might also depend where you have placed your propellers. A tail router is important for an aircraft because if you did not have a tail router then your plane would keep spinning around. Tail routers balance how the plane will move and move the opposite direction the main propellers is moving in. Now we are going to talk about blade types and what pros and cons there are to different blades. Down-wash is created more by short blades and so is the noise. Even though you you have more ability to fit in to tight spaces with the short blades. And with long blades you have more fuel efficiency. I think the long blades match more of our criteria and constraints so we picked longer blades than compared to shorter blades so we picked long blades. Now we are talking about number of blades. Three blades make more noise than five blades but five blades weigh more. Also the cargo capacity just fits with seven blades if you compare it with nine and five blades. Because five blades cant hold much cargo and nine blades weigh to much. Some trade-offs we might have if we make our rotor blades longer is that it might be to big to land because we are flying through the city which means it has to fit in to tight spaces so they need to be compact which is one of our constraints. And one trade-off you might have for having more router blades is that it might weigh to much and could not carry any cargo. So, our final lift design is a main propeller at the top,
because it is a helicopter, with seven long router
blades built with the airfoil design including our tail
routers that move the opposite directions as
our main routers. Pass Fail Fuselage Type/Number Helicopter Factors Parts Lift System Propulsion 2 propellers Piston Engine Capacity Range Some aircraft fuselages are different because they are used for different uses, such as some are commercial or cargo planes that need big fuselage, And some aircraft do not need big fuselage like helicopters of fighter jets. Some factors that are important are the cabins because it is the biggest part of the fuselage. The Tail cone is also important because all the wiring of the fuselage is in there and it connects the empennage with the rest of the fuselage. Without the tail cone the pilot can not control the empennage . The Empennage is also really important because it is located at the end of the fuselage. The reason it is so important is because it is the main part that steers the plain and stores all the parts of the fuselage that control the airplane. How they all work together is that they all play a special part in the plane. The plane would not work if the fuselage was to big because it would put too much weight on the plane and then it will lower the lift. We also made our aircraft really aerodynamic because that will help create less drag and we added the airfoil shape to our wings so we could create more lift. We also learned that the material of the fuselage has an affect on the lift. We learned that the best material aircraft designers use are composite material made of carbon fibers which we used for our aircraft. A trade-off we had was making our aircraft big to hold more cargo but allowing to much weight on the aircraft. So, for our final design we had a small sized fuselage because one of our most important constraints was that it should not be to big. Our Fuselage also had a really aerodynamic design because that also helps our
plane gain lift. That is how we conclude our Fuselage Lab. Pass Fail Size Design Chart Used Type Wood Composite Aluminum 1903 2001 1984 Middle Heavy Light Material Types In the Propulsion lab we are going to be talking about thrust partially and about the different engines that are going to be used in our aircraft and in general. We will also talk about what engines should be used in the different types of aircraft. First we will talk about the engines that people use in the aircraft. The main engines that are used for aircraft's usually are the turbo-shaft and piston engines. Even-though these engines are both common engines different aircraft's might decide to use different engines in there airplane. For instance most small commercial aircraft's use piston engines because since piston engines cost less they are more affordable when you are carrying a limited amount of people. But when you are carrying heavier loads turbo shaft would be the way to go because turbo shaft engines have more power than piston engines and can carry more. Since our problem has less cargo to carry we decided to pick the Piston engine. Another reason we picked it was because our budget was suppose to be less than 250,000 so the piston engine is ideal for our problem. Some ways aircraft's create thrust is by tilting the way of their propellers. Others count on the engines for thrust such as jet engines. Now Iam going to talk about the advantages and disadvantages of the turbo shaft and piston engines. Advantages Turbo-shaft: They are more powerful, weigh less, and are simpler so fewer parts can break. Disadvantages Turbo shaft: They cost a lot of money so are less used for less weighing cargo. Advantages Piston: Cost less so more used for small weighing cargo. Disadvantages Piston: Less powerful and weigh more, they also are more complicated then turbo shaft. So our final design
for the propulsion in our aircraft is a piston engine since
it is made for smaller aircraft and is ideal for holding
less cargo. Designing The Aircraft This final Section is about The steps we went through To make our actual plane. We decided instead of explaining to you the steps we went through in the design center we thought we would make a chart about it. After the Making of our aircraft we moved on to the CFD Lab to see how computer help in the making of the aircraft. CFD is about predicting how a plane will fly. There is CFD to help us learn about the airflow the plane will have without calculating for a long time by yourself. How CFD works is that first they draw a 3D grid is draw around the aircraft. After that they use a computer to figure out the speed of the plane. Then they make calculations of the airflow through the aircraft. The can also use arrows to see the direction the wind is blowing. Now we will talk about the Wind tunnel. Another thing is that it shows how the plane will do when they are done building the aircraft. It will also show the weak parts of the plane. The wind Tunnel is a tube that blows out air and you put your airplane in it to test if the plane will be stable when it actually fly's. After the wind tunnel phase we went to the flight test lab to test our plain........ And It Flew! Then we printed our certificate! Our Helicopter (Just A Little Bigger) Our Certificate (A little Different) For Achieving your Goal In Your Project Signed: Omar Mahnoor For Your Project Future Flight Design Thank You For Listening Because This is The End Of our Show I hoped You Gained A Lot of Knowledge Because We Loved Sharing Ours. Thank you For Watching! The End Money What Is A Trade-Off ? A Trade-Off is a situation that makes you lose one aspect of your Design in order to get another. For example in flight some trade-offs NASA engineers have is lets say they want to make there wings longer to create less down-wash because they are going to fly through the city they will have a trade-off because they will not be able to fit through buildings with the longer blades on your aircraft. A trade-off is basically working on one part of your idea but having the other part of your idea being affected by the first idea.