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American Crisis

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Teddy Minahan

on 19 December 2013

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Transcript of American Crisis

American Crisis
Uncle Tom's Cabin (1852)
Southern View
Ostend Manifesto (1852)
Southern View
Kansas-Nebraska Act (1854)
Southern View
"Bleeding Kansas" (1856)
Southern View
Fugitive Slave Law (1850)
Southern View
The Fugitive Slave Law proved that the South would go to extreme measures to protect the institution of slavery. This act was one of the most controversial parts of the Compromise of 1850. Specialized government officials were allowed to issue warrants for runaway slaves
The south was quick to ban the book. In the south the book was met with outrage and branded an irresponsible book of distortions and overstatements. The book even strained economic ties with Great Britain because of popularity.
The south worried about the addition of a new territory above the Missouri Compromise line. To appease them, Congress established the ideal of popular sovereignty.

The Kansas-Nebraska measure divided the territory into two parts -- Kansas, due west of Missouri, and Nebraska. It noted that the Missouri Compromise line no longer applied since it had been repealed by the Compromise of 1850. Stephen Douglas, chair of the Senate Committee on Territories and author of the bill, called this Popular Sovereignty. This doctrine held that the citizens of the territory would decide for themselves whether or not to admit slavery. Officially they would make this choice when applying for statehood. Once the Nebraska bill came onto the Senate floor and Northern protest swelled, Southern Democrats united behind the measure. Support for the bill became a test. Anyone opposed to it was not a friend of slavery
Charles Sumner (1856)
Southern View
Brooks, Sumner's attacker, became an instant hero in the south. Popularly known for losing his temper, Brooks was sent canes from his supporters. The incident exemplified the growing hostility between the two camps in the prewar years
Dred Scott v. Sanford (1857)
Southern View
The question that this article referred to was the "claim of negro citizens in the Northern States to Federal office and employment," which was addressed by the Supreme Court in the Dred Scott decision when it ruled that blacks, free or enslaved, could never be citizens of the United States. The idea that the Dred Scott decision provided the answer to the slavery question seemed to take hold in the South as almost all Southern responses to the decision made reference to it. Southerners also believed that since this Supreme Court decision had solved the slavery question, there would no longer be any reason for sectional tension between the North and South.
John Brown's Raid (1859)
Southern View
Southern newspapers labeled the entire north as John Brown sympathizers. Southern politicians blamed the Republican Party and falsely claimed that Abraham Lincoln supported Brown's intentions
Election of Lincoln (1860)
Southern View
The Southern slave-owning class viewed the election of an anti-slavery administration as a mortal threat. South Carolina seceded from the union. Other Southern states soon followed, leading within little over five months to the outbreak of the American Civil War
Secession (1860)
Southern View
In moving to break up the union the South carried out what noted Civil War historian James McPherson of Princeton University called a “pre-emptive counterrevolution”. sensing that the tide of historical development was moving against it, the southern planter aristocracy chose to instigate civil war rather than accept any restrictions on slavery, the source of its power and wealth
The south wanted to join Cuba into their slave territory. The addition of Cuba would have given them stronger representation in Congress and spread the philosophy of slavery
Compromise of 1820
• New territories
• Issue: Slave or Free state?
• Missouri became slave state while Maine became free state
• 36-30 line: everything north of it was free except Missouri and everything south was slave state
• All resulted from Louisiana Purchase

Compromise of 1833
• Henry Clay and John C. Calhoun created it
• Resolution to Nullification
• Import taxes slowly reduced until 1842
• Goes back to levels of Tariff of 1816
• Tariff reduced 1/10 every year

Compromise of 1850
• California was admitted as one whole free state
• Texas trades some land to federal government for NM to get $10 million
• New Mexico and Deseret(Utah) were denied statehood
• They became territories and slavery was up to the popular sovereignty of the territory
Fugitive Slave Act

Conclusion
The Civil War was inevitable event in American history that would have happened earlier if the government had not put in place the Compromises of 1820, 1833, and 1850. These compromises were just Band-Aids for a much larger cut than they could handle. Sectionalism was what cut deep into the society existing in America. All parts of the country were facing off to fight for what was better for them. They had such opposing ideals that eventually they would physically clash. There were a few final crises that finished cutting the country in half, North and South. The fugitive Slave Act began the final succession of crises that ended with the election of Abraham Lincoln. The South was feeling threatened by the North. The North had gained a substantial advantage in the government because of their population increase. The Civil War could have happened before all of these crises in the last ten years leading up to the Civil War. The problems that had been slowly drowning the country until it finally did so. The country was faced with the problem it could no longer avoid and the only answer for both sides was war.
Northen View

Under this act,
southerners took
men's liberties
and natural rights
for their own
economic gains. In
total, 322 men were
sent to slavery,
while only 11 remained
free
Northern View
Uncle Tom Cabin
publicized a story
that needed to be
told, as slaves did
not have their own
voices. Banning the
book was simply
unconstitutional.
Northern View
The South's attempt
at admitting Cuba
into the Union was
just another way to
spread the evil of
slavery.
Northern View
This act opened
the door for a
violation of the
Missouri
Compromise by
allowing slavery
above the 36 30
line
Northern View
Many out of state
southerners who
were ineligible to
vote on the matter
of slavery did so,
and these border
ruffians showed
that the south will
do anything to
expand slavery.
Northern View
Perfect example of
the North's diplomacy
against the South's
sheer brutality in
Congress, infuriating
the North, especially
because Preston
Brooks was praised
in the South.
Northern View
The Dred Scott
Decision showed
violated the
Missouri Comprimise,
this being the
second time the
South chose to ignore
it. It also hinted
that the Judiciary
Branch may be in
favor of the South.
Northern View
John Brown was a
noble martyr of his
even more noble cause:
bringing an end to
the evils of slavery
and was viewed as
a hero for doing so in
the North.
Northern View
Abraham Lincoln
won his presidency
constitutionally,
and therefore the
South could not
complain just
because their
preferred candidate
did not win.

Northern View
In leaving the Union,
the South did not
solve any of the
lingering issues, and
only heightened
tensions. By acting
in this childish manner,
the South threw away
everything that the
country's forefathers
had fought for.
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