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The Information Cycle

Understanding how the nature and format of information about an event or phenomenon changes over time will help you develop an effective research strategy for finding sources..

Nancy Bellafante

on 12 November 2015

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Transcript of The Information Cycle

Books &
government documents
TV, radio & Internet
Scholarly Journals
the week of
Weeks after
Months after
Year of
Reference works
Years after

World Trade Center bombings September 11, 2001
trade & scholarly
Popular & Trade
Day of event

basic facts reported
unverified information
eye-witness accounts
interviews with experts
public reaction

published summaries of event and its aftermath
Excerpts from interviews of key individuals involved
editorials on implications

Experts from different fields study the event
Numerous topics related to the event emerge and are examined
The focus is on analysis, not factual reporting
Findings published in journals

Analysis of event
impact on different groups
web discussions & debates
mix of facts and opinions
inherent bias

Summary of academic and expert research is compiled and published in books.
Findings of government investigations are published

Generally accepted facts and research findings related to the event are published in reference works
Information sources created at the time of the event (primary sources) are compiled, organized and archived
Therefore, it is important to think about how information related to an event or phenomenon changes over time. Understanding the timeline will help you decide what types of sources (and formats) are most appropriate for your research. You will likely need a variety.
To develop an effective research strategy and choose the most useful tactics & tools to find information, you must first identify what source types and formats you will need to answer your research question.
Lule, Jack. “Myth and Terror on the Editorial Page: The New York Times Responds to September 11, 2001.” Journalism Mass Communication Quarterly 79.2 (2002): 275–293. Print.
Offenberg, J. H. et al. “Persistent Organic Pollutants in the Dusts That Settled Across Lower Manhattan After September 11, 2001.” Environmental science & technology 37.3 (2003): 502–508. Print.
Silver, R. C et al. “Nationwide Longitudinal Study of Psychological Responses to September 11.” JAMA: the journal of the American Medical Association 288.10 (2002): 1235–1244. Print.
McAndrews, J., and S. Potter. “Liquidity Effects of the Events of September 11, 2001.” Economic Policy Review 2 (2002): n. pag. Print.
Goodrich, J. N. “September 11, 2001 Attack on America: a Record of the Immediate Impacts and Reactions in the USA Travel and Tourism Industry.” Tourism Management 23.6 (2002): 573–580. Print.
Akram, S. M, and K. R Johnson. “Race, Civil Rights, and Immigration Law After September 11, 2001: The Targeting of Arabs and Muslims.” NYU Ann. Surv. Am. L. 58 (2001): 295. Print.
Clark, M. M. “The September 11, 2001, Oral History Narrative and Memory Project: A First Report.” The Journal of American History 89.2 (2002): 569–579. Print.
Philpott, Daniel. “The Challenge of September 11 to Secularism in International Relations.” World Politics 55.1 (2002): 66–95. Web. 18 June 2012.
McGowan, L, T Jones, and S Jones. “Pot of Gold Information Literacy Tutorial: The Information Cycle.” Hesburgh Libraries: University of Notre Dame. Web. 18 June 2012.
“Resources | Teaching and Learning About 9/11 With The New York Times.” The Learning Network Blog. Web. 18 June 2012.
“Understanding 9/11: A Television News Archive.” Internet Archive. Web. 18 June 2012.
Spiker, Ted. “9/11 Magazine Covers.” American Society of Magazine Editors. Web. 18 June 2012.
Cheney, D et al. The Information Cycle: How Today’s Events Become Tomorrow’s Information. University Libraries, The Pennsylvania State University, 2008. Video.
Now, we wil examine a real life event ,
and see how information about it was communicated over time.
Full transcript