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Jayden Tucker

on 8 June 2015

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The definition of water scarcity is the lack of sufficient available water resources to meet the demands of water usage within a region. It is said to already affect every continent and around 2.8 billion people around the world. Over 1.2 billion people lack access to clean drinking water.
World Water Scarcity
Chad is in central north Africa. Chad is the fifth largest nation in Africa. The coordinates to find Chad on a world globe are 12.1000 degrees north, 16.0333 degrees east. The temperature in Chad is hot and the landscape is arid because it has the Sahara Desert going through it. Rainfall is varied over the country as in the semi-humid far south of the country, rainfall is abundant between May and October. In the Sudan zone towards the north, the rainy season becomes shorter, with only 500 to 1,000 mm, and only 200 to 500 mm in the semi-arid zones. Here, most of the rains fall between July and September. Chad has water source which is Lake Chad. There are 12.83 million people living in Chad. The population is growing at an annual rate of about 3.1 per cent.
Rainfall map of Africa
Climate Graph Chad
Water scarcity in Chad
Lake Chad is the fourth largest lake and covers the boundary of four states. Since 1963 the Lake has lost about 90% of its size and is under threat of disappearing and causing water scarcity in Chad. This is reported to be caused from an increasing population, overfishing and overgrazing, increase in irrigation and rice farming which requires more water. Major overgrazing in the region has caused loss of vegetation and serious deforestation, contributing to the drier climate. At least 80% of Chad's population relies on farming and livestock raising for its livelihood. Also there are invasive plant species which currently cover about 50% of the remaining surface of Lake Chad.

Pollution is mainly from oil industry, fertilizers from farming, human and animal wastes. Some 20 dams have been built since the 1970's impacting its size. Climate change has impacted Lake Chad by lowering annual water flow, reducing humidity and increasing the evaporation caused by the hot temperature of the zone. Due to these varying causes the lake divided into two and has considerably shrunk.

Having limited access to water the Chad population are dying from dehydration and malnutrition often suffering from diarrhea illnesses that could be prevented by having more clean water. Diseases such as cholera are spread rampantly during the wet season. Environmentally it is also home to many eco-systems with hundreds of species of fish and birds which are slowly dying.
Did you know: Water scarcity has 2 types Economic & Physical
Water scarcity affects many countries, but none more than Africa.
This map shows the average annual rainfall for North Africa.
The above climate graph shows monthly average temperatures, precipitation, wet days, sunlight hours, relative humidity and wind speed. The maximum temp reached was 40.4 degrees, the highest average temp was 32 degrees, lowest temp was 16.1, the longest day length was 12.9 hours, highest humidity was 71%, the highest precipitation was in August with 166.2mm.
Management Strategies in Place & effectiveness
The Lake Chad Basin Commission (LCBC) was set up to manage Lake Chad and to address water scarcity. The commission has many projects that they are trying to implement. For example IBWTP project plans to replenish the lake by building a dam and 60 miles of canals to pump water uphill from the Congo River to the Chari River and then on to Lake Chad.

The World Bank is also providing $10.6 million for a project to reverse land and water degradation in parts of the lake. In addition, the LCBC is educating livestock herders on gaining access to grazing and watering areas. Water users are being taught efficient water-utilization methods and fishermen more appropriate techniques for catching fish

Many aid organisations try to help the population of Chad by for example Red Cross gives people goats so they can breed them and sell them. They also provide cash so they buy items from the market and sell them in villages further away - trying to give them independence in the long term.

The above graph shows that Unicef spent $15,332,000 for water, sanitation and hygiene in 2012 due to the ongoing water scarcity problem.
Climate change is set to get worse everywhere. To help Lake Chad for the future there are some changes and recommendations made by LCBC and other organisations. Firstly, they need to be including local people in the management of the lake so they can work together for the same goal with the government and LCBC.

Secondly, encouraging the community to preserve and maintain natural vegetation around the lake by planting more trees to help with revegetation. Educating locals and helping the population learn good skills when it comes to using water. Also looking at other forms of work rather than agriculture giving them other means of income.

Thirdly, environmental and climate change impact education for everyone, so we can all help with climate change and help slow its effect. Ongoing research by the government to help lessen climate change to help lessen the impact on Lake Chad.

Fourthly, looking at clean energy - wind power or solar energy to help lessen pollution into Lake Chad and make access to water easier.
Did you know:
UNICEF started building clean water delivery systems in the poor communities around Chad. They made wells which are 60 metres deep – far deeper and far cleaner than the open or hand-pumped wells commonly used. Solar panels fuel the pumps, which suck up and deliver the water to an elevated tank, which in turn feeds two water points.
Economic water scarcity is when a country does not have the funds to utilize an adequate source of water.
The disappearance of Lake Chad
This picture shows how big Lake Chad was to how small it has shrunk in 2001
Physical water scarcity is when physcial access to water is limited. The demand for water is more than what the land can provide.
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