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Timeline of Worship

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Jonathan Brouhard

on 30 April 2012

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Transcript of Timeline of Worship

Timeline of Worship
Jonathan Brouhard
WRSP 320-001

A Historical Overview of
Biblical and Christian Worship Periods of Worship
1. Old Testament
2. New Testament
3. The Church 1. Old Testament Worship
Early Hebrew Worship
Mount Sinai Worship
Tabernacle Worship
Temple Worship
Synagogue Worship 1. Old Testament
Early Hebrew Worship
Mount Sinia Worship
Tabernacle Worship
Temple Worship
Synagogue Worship Early Hebrew Worship Genesis 1:1-2
God Created the Heaven and The Earth
God is revealed as the creator of all things
As creator, He is above all of His creation
He is the only One worthy of Worship Genesis 4:2-7
Cain and Abel offer sacrifices to God
First account of personal offerings used in worship
God accepted Abel's offering but not Cain's offering
Establishes that there are standards for worship
We must worship God in a way that is pleasing to Him Genesis 4:20-21
First Biblical mention of Music
Jabal is described as the father of all those who play the harp and the flute Genesis 11
Tower of Babel
People build a tower to bring themselves glory
God causes people to begin to speak in new languages so they cannot communicate
Shows that God desires to be worshiped and what happens when worship focuses on "me" Genesis 22:5
Abraham and Isaac
God commands Abraham to sacrifice his son Isaac to Him
Abraham responds in obedience immediately
Abraham has faith that God will provide the ram
Isaac willingly allows his father to bind him
God provides a ram for Abraham to sacrifice instead of Isaac
Represents God sending Jesus to die on the cross in our place
We should strive to have the same faith and obedience as Abraham Genesis 8:20-9:17
Noah and the Ark
God protected Noah and his family inside the ark
The ark landed safely and everyone went outside
Noah offerred the Lord a burnt offering
God establish a covenant with Noah
He created the rainbow as a sign of His covenant Exodus 12
Passover and the Feast of Unleavened Bread
God set up these celebrations for the people of Israel
The feasts represent how the Lord brought them out of Egypt
We should give glory to God for what He has done
We should not forget what He has done for us already
Passover is also symbolic the Redemption from Jesus Exodus 15
Moses, Miriam, and the Israelites
First musical worship
God delivers the people of Israel from the Egyptians
Moses sings a song of praise to God
Spontaneous, unplanned-worship time
Miriam sings a chorus in response to Moses song Mount Sinai Worship Tabernacle Worship Temple Worship Synagogue Worship Exodus 24:1-8
Ten Commandments
God gives the people His commands
All the people are brought together in unity
Gave Israel with a leadership/organizational structure for Worship and government
It is the Word of God revealed to Israel
Reveals how they can live in a manner pleasing to God Exodus 19:10-15
Consencration of the people
God commanded the Israelites to consencrate themselves
Shows the importance of being cleansed before approaching God God's requirements reguarding worship
Have no other God beside Him
Love Him completely Tabernacle
Professionl priesthood designed
God gave prescribed instructions for worship
Symbols and instruments were emblematic of Christ
Veil seperated people from the presence of God
The tabernacle was a symbol that God dwelt with His people
The sacrifices for sin were examples of Christ
The sacrifices were highly sensory Temple
Gods permanent dwelling plave with His people Organized Worship
David appointed priest-musicians
He organized a choir and orchestra
THere were about three composers/conductors
Members of the group underwent years of training
singing was accompanied with music
Style was probably a form of heterophony Psalms
Written in parallel patterns using Hebrew poetic parallelism
Written by Davdi, Asaph, Korah, and others
Expressions of Prainse, Thanksgiving, and Petition to God
Probably was sung in antiphonal
Has been the basic liturgical expression in worship for 2000 years Lesser Canticles
Exodus 15:1-18; Deuteronomy 32:1-43; 1 Samuel 2:1-10; Isaiah 38:10-20; Habakkuk 3:2-19; Jonah 2:2-9
Moses, Miriam, Hannah, Habakkuk, Isaiah, Jonah
Nonmetrical Hymns or chants taken from the Bible
Excludes the Psalms
Used in many church liturgies Jewish Calender, a Celebration of Worship
Rosh Hashanna, Yom Kippur, Hanukkah, Purim, Passover, Pentecost
Days dedicated to the celebration and remembrance of the past
Yom Kippur, the Day of Atonement, is a day of rest in which the High Priest would make atonement for the people of Israel each year Restoration of Temple Worship
After Hebrews return from Exile
Ezra and Nehemiah Ezra
Ezra 1. King Cyrus decrees that the people of Israel are allowed to return to Israel
Ezra 2:65. 200 men and women were dedicated singers
Ezra 3:10-11. Following the laying of the foundation of the emple, the priests and Levites lead the people in song of praise and thanksgiving to the Lord
Ezra 3:12. People shout aloud for joy
Ezra 6:15-17. The completed temple is dedicated to the Lord and sacrifices are offered to Him Nehemiah
Na 7:70-72. People personally contributed to help the work
Na 8:1-3. All of the people listented to Ezra read the Law intently
Na 8:5. The people stood up for the reading of the Law
Na 8:6. The people responded to the reading of the Law
Lifted their hands and said "Amen! Amen!"
They bowed to the ground and worshiped Restoration of Temple Worship
After Hebrews return from Exile
Ezra and Nehemiah Restoration of Temple Worship
After Hebrews return from Exile
Ezra and Nehemiah Nehemiah
Na 8:7-8. The Levites instructed the people in the Law
Na 8:12. The people celebrated understanding of the Law
Na 9:2. The Israelites confessed their sin and the sin of their fathers
Na 9:3. They spent a fouth of the day reading from the Law of God and they spent a forth of the day in confession and worshiping
Na 9:4. Levites lead a song of consencration, praise, exultation, and commitment through a song which recounted Israel's history and God's faithfulness Leaders in worship Nehemiah
Na 11:22-23. Chief Officer of the Levites
Uzzi, the son of Bani from the sons of Asaph

Na 11:17; 12:8. Leaders of songs of thanksgiving
Mattaniah and his brothers Restoration of Temple Worship
After Hebrews return from Exile
Ezra and Nehemiah c. 600 BC
Synagogues evolved as the Israelites spread across the Mediterranean world and became the Jewish center for teaching and worship
Services included teahing Old Testament scripture, prayer, almsgiving, and followed the Sabath temple liturgy
Worship in the Synagogue used no instruments New Testament The Christian's heart becomes the temple and Jesus becomes the high priest and the lamb for the sacrifice
Worship is no longer restricted to the tabernacle of the temple, Christians can worship anywhere Jesus is worshiped
Matt 2:11. The Magi come and bow down and worship Him. They present Him with costly gifts.
Matt 28:9. The women worshiped the resurected Jesus Veil is torn
Matthew 27:51; Mark 15:38; Luke 23:45
After Jesus died on the cross, the veil in the temple is torn from the top to the bottom
This shows that there is no longer a barrier between God's presence and people
Christians have the Holy Spirit within them and do not need a priest Disciples sing a hymn
Matt 26:30; Mark 14:26 Early Church Worship in the Church
Early Church
Pre-Reformation
Post-Reformation 150 A.D.
Justin Martyr (138 A.D. -161 A.D.)
Described the typical Christian Worship service in his "Apology" to Emperor Antoninus Pius

Describe a two-part service
1. The Service of the Word
2 The Service of the Lords Table

(Did not explicitly metion music) 0 A.D. 100 A.D. 200 A.D. 300 A.D. 400 A.D. 500 A.D. 600 A.D. 700 A.D. 800 A.D. 900 A.D. 1000 A.D. 1100 A.D. 1200 A.D. 1300 A.D. 1400 A.D. 1500 A.D. 1600 A.D. 1700 A.D. 1800 A.D. 1900 A.D. 2000 A.D. 1. The Service of the Word
This developed from the Jewish synagogue worhsip

2 The Service of the Lords Table
This developed as an observance of the upper room 236 A.D.
Hippolytos
Wrote the Apostolic Tradition in which he writes a complete Eucharistic Prayer as a suggested model for Christian worship

Each bishop should pray according to ability
Gives a precedent for lifting hands
Service is seperated into five elements
Does not mention music 1. Service of the Word
Lessons
Sermon
Intercessory Prayer
Kiss of Peace

2. Service of the Table
Offertory - Elements are brought to the table
Eucharistic Prayer

3. The Communion

4. Post-Communion Prayer

5. Benediction and Dismissal Outline of Worship 380 A.D.
Christian Worship services were highly developed

Clementine Liturgy
The Apostolic Constitutions
First appeared at the end of the first century
Includes seven elements Outline of Worship 1. Service of the Word
2. Service of the Table
3. Offertory
4. The Eucharistic Prayer
5. Communion
Included a singing from Psalm 34
6. Post-communion
Bishop leads thanksgiving and intercession
Prayer and blessing
7. Dismissal 313 A.D.
Emperor Constanstine of the West
Emperor Licinius of the East
They issued the Edict of Milan 311 A.D.
Emperor Galerius
Edict of Nicomedia

Granted an indulgence to Christians which allowed them to practice their faith securely in their homes Edict of Milan
Returned the property which had been confinscated from Christians
Magistrates were ordered to execute this order immediately Results
Christianity was no longer forbidden
Christianity became the official religion
Every person was baptized and considered Christian 2010 A.D. 1910 A.D. 1920 A.D. 1930 A.D. 1940 A.D. 1950 A.D. 1960 A.D. 1970 A.D. 1980 A.D. 1990 A.D. 2000 A.D. 2010 A.D. 30-100 A.D.
Early Christian worship

Modeled on what Christians had experienced in the synagogue plus an observance of the upper room

Disciples continued to meet on the Sabbath following the ascention of Jesus

Worship is social and congregational

All corporate worship for edifircation of the Body Elements maintained from Judaism

Christians continued to celevrate Jewish Festivals

Elements of Synagogue worship
1 Psalms, and scripture song
2 Scripture Readings
3 Discussion 30 A.D.
Pentecost (Acts 2)

120 believes gathered in one place and joined together in unyielding intercessory prayer

They were filled with the Holy Spirit and the Holy Spirit operated through them with tounges

3000 people recieved salvation that day Music and worship in the Early Church

Singings Psalms, Hymns, and Spiritual songs
Lyrics were based on scripture text
Music was used to facilitate teaching of doctrine
Spiritual songs were expressions of love to God

Instruments were likely not used Elements of worship in the New Testament

Scripture readings
Preaching
Confessions of faith
Baptism
SInging of various tyupes
Prayers
Congregational Amens
Collection
Physical Action - service I Tim 4:3
Acts 20:7
I Tim 6:23
Acts 8:37
Col 3:16
Acts 2:42
I Cor 14:16
I Cor 16:1-2
I Tim 2:8 The Service of the Table

Thanksgiving
Rememberance
Anticipation of Christs Return
Intercession
Kiss of Peace Luke 22:14
I Cor 11:25
I Cor 11:26
John 17:1, 9
Matt 5:23-24;
Rom 16:16; I Pet 5:14 Change in Worship Structure
Worship became extremely ordered
Remained congregational and participatory
A heirarchy gradually developed within the church
Thers were six classes in this heirarchy
Bishops, presbyters, deacons,
subdeacons, readers and singers ~100-400 A.D.
Hymns
Hymns with heretical doctrine are written and begin to spread through the church and misguide peoples theologies
Examples:
Bardesanes and his son
Arius These hymns were countered by songs written by other hymnists with proper doctrine.
Examples:
Ephrem Syrus
Ambrose
Niceta of Remesiana

Songs can have a large impact and need to be carefully examined for consistant biblical doctrine As the church grew, leaders began to develop their own theologies according to Old Testament teachings inconsistest with New Testament principles

The Lord's Supper experience a significant departure from its celebration in the 1st century church Transubstantiation was popularized and people understood that the wine and the bread became literally the Body and the Blood of Jesus

Worshipers became spectatores of the performance by the priest as they repeatedly offered the Christ body and blood for forgiveness of sins. ~400 A.D.
Liturgies

Each major metropolitan center developed its own liturgy under the leadership of its bishop

Western churches followed the leadership of Rome
Eastern churches followed Constantanople Western Church Each church used its own venacular for worship
Sought conformity in doctrine in order to strengthen political bonds in the empire Began using Latin instead of Greek
Developed 3 liturgies
Mozarabic: Spain
Gallic: Northern Europe
Celtic: Britain Mass became bloated in size
Less participatory
Secretive elements by the priests Eastern Church Worship in the Middle Ages

Lost evangelistic spirit
Overemphasized the Lord's Supper
Lost congregational participatory nature
Lost doctrine consistent with teh Early Church
Lost understanding of the Work of Christ Christian Creeds: The Three Ecumenical Creeds

The Apostles Creed
The Nicene Creed
The Athanasian Creed The Apostles Creed

Cofession of the belief in the Holy Trinity
Recounted prior to baptism The Nicene Creed

Written in order to correct doctrinal errors
Highlites that Jesus is true God The Athanasian Creed

Written in defense of teachings of scripture
Acknowledged the omnipotence of God
Makes clear that God is one
Defends the Kenosis of Christ Jews began to offer sacrifices of praise and prayer instead of animal sacrifices
Jews were expected to attend a temple service at least once a year
Practice grew in acceptance and by the time of Christ, was developed throughout the Hellinistic worship Service
Congregational with men participating
Involved a regular schedule of readings

1 Reading from the Torah and Prophets
2 Exposition and discussion
3 Prayers (praises and petitions)
4 Psalms and Canticles from the Old Testament Prone preaching service
Developed from the “preaching missions”.

Congregations would gather in the middle of the
sanctuary far from the altar (pulpit in center of sanctuary).
A vernacular worship form developed from this tradition
It was inserted into the mass, and developed into a separate service. 600 A.D.
Congregational singing

Congregational singing was eliminated in official Christian worship
Partly because of heretical song writing and partly to eliminate the remaining effects of “degenerate” music developed from a form of Ambrosian chant. 1182-1226 A. D.
Francis of Assisi

Reformer in Italy
Taught Christ first; Christ last; and Christ all and in all
Singing was important in his movement and
he called himself God's gleeman Song Style Development

Laude – Francis' vernacular hymns of praise and devotion.
Influenced by the secular French Troubador song in a relatively simple style
Later Laude – Homophonic and polyphonic styles with both Latin & Italian texts.
“Macaronic” Hymns – Combined vernacular language with certain Latin phrases.
“Contrafacted” Hymns - 13th century. Texts were parodies of secular songs
Geisslerlieder - sung during the penitential processions of 14th-century flagellants.
Leisen – Crusading or pilgrimage Songs.

Each of these musical forms stemmed from some movement of spiritual renewal, and each drew its poetic/music elements from popular/secular sources. 1328-1384 A. D.
John Wycliff

Attacked doctrines of teh Church
Claimed scripture was the surpreme authority
Claimed that grace could be mediated outside of the church
Translated the Late Vulgate into Verancular English
Codemned to death for herasy by the church 1369-1415 A. D.
John Huss

Influenced by Wycliff
Religious reformer in Bohemia
Supported by Kin Wenceslaus IV
Opposed by the Arhcbishop of Prague
Excommnicated and later sentence to burning at the stake c. 1415 A. D.
Hussite Wars

War between Bohemian and German Catholics
German Catholics won and his supporters dwindled
In Moravia, Huss' followers continued their stuggle
Hussites were active in hymn composition
Their hymns influenced Luther and the Moravian church 1483-1546 A. D.
Martin Luther

He was a monk in the Catholic Chuch
He began to oppose the church for two reasons:
The sacerdotal interpretation of the mass
and The resultant abuses He belivied that communion was a sacrament not a sacrifice
He was a musician and an ardent support of music
He is remembered for giving the Germans the Bible and hymnbook in their own language Mass

Luther restored the sermon to the central place in the Mass
His first liturgy retained many ofthe same features and order as the Catholic Mass only changed into venacular German
Choirs lead the congregation in unaccompanied chorales Hymns

He wrote his songs to melodies associated with secular text
Purposes were theological and Pedagogical
Wrote new texts or adapted psalms, Latin, and Leisch hymns 1484-1531 A. D.
Ulrich Zwingly

Centered in Zurich
More didactic than devotional
His first service (1525) eliminated music completely
He ordered that organ be destroyed and choirs be disbanded
First to believe that the Lord's Supper is an ordinace not a sacrament
Celebrated communion four times a year 1491-1551 A. D.
John Bucer

Follower of Zwingly
His liturgy combined Lutheran and Zwinglian elements 1509-1564 A. D.
John Calvin

Most severe reaction to Roman Catholicism
He began with no set form of worship and no music
He was influenced by Bucer's German rite
He was banished from Geneva in 1538 but returned c. 1542
He desired a simpler form of worship like the early church
He later decided that without music, the service was dead He was convinced that people need to sing truth
He commissioned Clement Moret to set all 150 psalms to meter
This work resulted in the Geneva Psalter (1562)
He used only psalms and no hymns
These became known as Geneva Jigs because of their relation to Folk Ballads
Calvin used lining out to teach songs to his congregation 1534 A. D.
English Reformation

King Henery broke with Rome and became head of the Anglican Church
The Latin Mass rematined in use which showed it was political in nature
Worship became congregational in nature
1549 A.D. Book of Common Prayer in English
Transubstaniation was removed A new chant system was devised
1552 A.D. another prayer book was released with even more changes
during the reign of Mary Tudor, Catholic worhsip was briefly re-established
There was widespread persecution of protestant Christians
Queen Elizabeth I worked to resrore what had been lost in Mary's reign
The Puritan movement was born and non-conformist churches emerged Puritism

Focused on simplicity
No choral or instrumental worship
No written liturgy
No symbolism

Puritans siezed the government for a short time and placed Oliver Cromwell as "Lord Protector of Englan" Anglican Worship Music

Bishop Myles Coverdale published "Goostly Psalms and Spiritual Songs"
a prayer book for private chapels or homes (1543 A.D.)
Calvin had a strong influence and only metrical hymns were used
1547 A.D. "Groom of the Royal Wedding" a psalm book
1556 A.D. "Anglo-Genevan Psalter" another psalm book
1567 A.D. "Sternhold and Hopkins" an influencial psalter Benjamin Keach (1640-1704 A.D.)
Isaac Watts (1674-1678 A.D.) Father of English Hymnody

English non-conformist who began to write and sing psalm paraphrases and "hymns of human composing" Anabaptist Re-baptizers

Desired more reforms than Luther or Calvin's followers
Persecuted by others
Bible centered
Fou-hour-long services
Rejected all litugies
Spontaneous prayers and Word made up the sercices at first
Sang unaccompanied Pietist Movement

First leader: Philipp Jakob Spencer (1635 -1705 A.D.)
Emphasized personal study of scripture
Music should be for every person so the meaning of text should be clear
Johann Sebastian Bach (1685-1750 A.D.) was a Pietist 1732-1790 A.D.

Influential Figures:
John and Charles Wesley
George Whitfied
Jonathan Edwards First Great Awakening Second Great Awakening 1795- early 1800s A.D.
Camp Meetings

Prominent movements
Yale Revival (1795)
Red River Revival (early 1800s) Third Great Awakening 1792-1875 A.D.
Charles Finney

Created the Invintation Fourth Great Awakening 1820s-1857 A.D.

Two Notable Movements
The Sunday School Revivals (1820s-early 1840s)
The City Revivals (1857)

Notable figures
Dwight L. Moody and Ira Sankey Fifth Great Awakening 1901-1931 A.D.

Notable Figures
Willaim J. Seymour
Charlie Alexnder and Reuban A. Torrey
Billy Sunday and Homer Rodenheaver

Notable Movements
Birth of Pentecostal movement
Evanglism
Radio Evangelism Sixth Great Awakening 1945-1960 A.D.

Notable Figures
Billy Graham, Oral Roberts, Bob Jones

Notable Movements
Youth for Christ
Billy Graham Crusades Seventh Great Awakening 1968-1990 A.D.
Jesus Movement

Notable Figures
Chuck Smith

Notable Movements
Vineyard
Calvary Chapel Chrisianity in America
1607 A. D.
Establishment of Jamestown - America's first Christian settlement

Christianity in America has developed over only a few hundred years
Churches began with nothing
The French Huguenots in Florida and the Dutch Puritans in New England both valued Psalm singing highly
1640 A.D. The "Bay Psalm Book" was first book published in America Pre-Reformation Post-Reformation William Billings created a new way of sing called singing by the note
Attendence at a singing school was required for people to learn it
This way of singing utilized the fa, sol, la, and mi of d'Arezzo's scale Moravians and Shakers in America
Both were established in America during the18th century

Both of these traditions created rich music
The Moravians had extensive knowledge of European music
They had their own hymn writers and very skilled
The Shakers created their music out of spontaneous acts of praise
They believed they were being controlled by the Holy Spirit
The Shakers created as many as 10,000 tunes Camp Meetings

By the 1830s, the Camp Meetings were well organized
Blacks and slaves flocked to the Camp Meetings
Whites would join with the blacks as they sang
The white attendies took back what they learned to their churches
This was the beginning of Spirituals
Associated with passages of liberation, on Moses, Daniel, etc. Charles Finney

Worship was designed to be evangelistic
He was Armenian in his beliefs
He is credited with the creation of the public invitation
Finner believed that scripture does not madate a specific form
Chose songs with sinple and familiar melody and lyrics
Messages took 40 pages and 2 hours to deliver Dwight L. Moody and Ira D. Sankey

Moody was challeneged to teach people the Bible and not his own words
Sankey is referred to as the Father of Gospel Music
Together, they were the first evangelistic preacher-singer team.
Following one of Moody's messages, there was a fire and he dismissed the crowd
Many people died that night and Moody lamented failing to give an invitation
He vowed to always give an invitation after every service
He also asked God to help him win at least one soul a day Moody

His preaching style was unrefined
he resisted the extremes of emotionalism
the service began with an hour of singing
He utilized many choirs
There was an attempt to create an atmosphere
Order: Congregational singing, specials, prayers,
scripture, sermon invintation Jonathan Edwards

He was a convinced Calvanist
Known for his sermon "Sinners in the hands of an angry God" George Whitfield

Made 7 trips to America
Associate of the Wesley brothers
His Calvinism would bring some tension to their relationship
Estimated that 25,000 people could hear him when he preached
Introduced the hymns of Isaac Watts to America Wesley Brothers

Were converted after stuyding the work of Luther
Influenced strongly by the Moravians because of their evangelistic efforts
They learned the importance of hymns expressing devotion and faith
Charles Wesley wrote 6500 hymns, many are stil sung this day
Their theology was Armenian and they created the first invitation songs
Sources for their melodies included psalm tunes, opera meoldies, and folk songs Yale Revivals

Timothy Dwight was the president of the college
He was committed ot Biblical inspiration
Over half of the students professed conversion by the end of the year Red River Revivals

Led by James McGready and Barton Stone
McGready was pastoring three small churches with little success
He encouraged the members to fast and pray for the sinners
A revival broke out and dozens of people were slain in the Spirit
Stone was a popular preacher fo rthe Great Western Revival
He preached to 20,000 people in a series of meetings from Friday to Wednesday Contemporary Worship Music (CWM)

CWM is a product of the commercial production culture
Churches have little influence inproduction of worship music Late 1960s

The youth was disillusioned with traditional Protestism
There was no respect for authority of tradition systems
Youths began to write songs to Jesus, about Jesus, and about their personal encounters with Jesus in their own style Chuck Smith invited these young people to share their songs
Soon, they took over a 1,500 person midweek Bible study
The music was simple and expressive
Commonly written first person 5 companies have been formed specializing in worship music
Maranatha
Vineyard (Mercy)
Hossana
EMI Christian Music Group: Worship Together
Word Publication 1997
Passion Movement

Founded by Louis Giglio
Began with the goal of uniting students in worship and prayer for spiritual awakening in this generation
They hold yearly conferences which attracts thousands of young people
Passion '97 was the first conference and 2000 people in attendence
Passion conferences expanded internationally and met with success Late 20th Century
Promise Keepers

Founded by Bill McCartney
Based on the belief that men keeping their promises
is key to the the worlds future
Discipleship and revival are two key elements of PKs
Designed to support the local church
First conference had 4,200 men in attendence
The second conference a year later attracted 22,000 men
1 million men participate in the Stand in Gap Day Trends in Popular Culture

Post-Modernism
Emerging Worship
Seeker Services Post-Modernism

Asserts that what you know and how you know it is not as important as what you do and how you do it
Rejects absolute truth in exchange for personal experience
Rejects any metanarritves
Truth is believed to be subjective and relative Emerging Worship

Seeks to change the presentation of the Gospel, not the message
Adopts a marketing strategy for the gospel
Attempts to create a tangible way to experience the gospel
Worship should not be a specticle
Worship should be organic
Utilizes the arts and multimedia in presentations
Offers freedom of expression in worship Seeker Service

Designing services to meet the felt needs of outsiders
Short, simple messages designed to present the basic aspects of the Christian faith
Not designed for church members
Another time is offered for Christians to dig into God's Word
Maintain the hard truths of the faith
Usually within a space that does not resemble a church William Seymour

Joined the Nyack students in a series of services in a L.A. ghetto
Met in a store-front building on Azusa Street
Hundred attended the meetings
Movement spread across the country and birthed today's Pentecostal movement Charlie Alexnder and Reuban A. Torrey

Torrey replaced Moody when he contracted an illness
Alexander was Torrey's songleader in his revivals
He was known for his ability to lead choirs
J. Wilber Chapman joined Alexander
The meeting would last up to 4 hours and be billed as a "Festival of Song" which included congregational, choir, and soloists
Torrey would preach for only 45 minutes.
Choir was seated behind the evangelist
Alexander was responsible for the piano's use in gospel music Billy Sunday and Homer Rodenheaver

Gospel songs were becoming less Biblical and Theological
Sunday was a dynamic and captivating speaker
Rodeheaver provided a level of entertainment
Their crusades were more entertaining and secularist Radio Evangelism

During the 1920s, mass evangelism went into decline
B.B. McHinner was the most gifted songwriter of this time
Evangelism moved to the radiowaves
This contributed to a move to spectating instead of participating
Gospel music became more geared to entertaining Youth For Christ

Gatherings of young people that would meet together Saturday nights
Entertainment was mixed with worship
Gospel choruses was the norm, with a move away from verses
First 20th century emphasis on age specific worship style
Developed into "Praise and Worship Music"
Billy Graham was the foremost YFC evangelist in the mid 1940s Billy Graham

He gained popularity as a 30 year old evangelist in 1949
He was accompanied by three important musicians
George Beverly Shea-soloist; Cliff Barrows-Songleader; and Ted Smith-Pianist
The Crusades were carefully planned, modern, worked with local churches, used modern media to spread the gospel Music of the Graham Crusades

Standard Protestant Hymns
Remained conservative yet appealing
Generally used popular music from the church
Utilized new music icons like Johnny Cash toattract the unchurched Maranatha

The new music coming out of Calvary Chapel was attracting young people
However, it did not have an outlet to the population at-large
Songs were spread via word-of-mouth, from house to house
One song in particular, "Seek Ye First" was a very popular
Chuck Smith used $2,500 of his own money to record an album of Calary's Music
The record did very well and Maranatha recorded other albums
Chuck Smith sold Maranatha to his nephew, Chuck Fromm and some investors As the Jesus movement lost its influnce, the impact that it had still endures
Many travelling musicians emerged and became professional musicians
The Vineyard movement followed Maranatha by creating a "Praise and Worship" music publishing company
The "worship wars" resulted from tension from groups who wanted their favorite music
The move from organ and choirs to guitar, keyboard, and durms Vineyard

Personal venture of John Wimber, Past of a vineyard church
He was a professional musician
Hosanna was the first album he released in 1984
Focussed primarily on the worship songs emerging from vineyard congregations
Songs reflect the teaching and theology found in vineyard ministry Hossana - Integrity

Founded in 1987 by pastors who wanted to give songwriters in their Churches an opportunity to record songs
Collects songs from independed song writers
1994 became publically traded
1998 ranked number 2 in sales in Christian Music EMI Christian Music Group

Started in 1990s
Became a platform for young contemporary artists like Matt Redman
Influnced by secular music Word Publication

Founded in Waco Texas in 1951 by Jarrel McCraken
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