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AP Psychology - Memory

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Sylvan O'Sullivan

on 24 March 2011

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Transcript of AP Psychology - Memory

Memory Consists of three main stages Encoding Encoding begins with sensory perception Storage and Retrieval Information that the senses bring in is sent to the hippocampus,
where it is integrated into an experience If the hippocampus, along with the frontal cortex, deems the
experience important enough, it is stored in the brain - becoming a... It can take one of two forms: Effortful Encoding Automatic Encoding Effortful encoding requries paying attention
to what it being processed, such as when
learning a piece of music Automatic encoding is done - surprisingly enough - automatically. This happens when the senses take in unremarkable information, such as the shrinking distance to a stop sign on your way home The next step in the memory process is storage.
Storage comes in three flavors: Sensory Memory Short-Term Memory Long-Term Memory Sensory memory is, essentially, what is used in the encoding process: extremely short-lived storage of incoming sensory information.

Sensory memory is photographic (perfect) while it exists

Iconic memory (visual sensory memory) lasts for a few tenths of a second,
while echoic memory (auditory sensory memory) lasts for three to four seconds Short-term memory is next in the hierarchy, storing only a few perceptions at a time (generally 5-9) but for a bit longer than sensory memory Short-term memory is very susceptible to corruption; any sort of interference can drastically decrease the chances of short-term memories upgrading to long-term memories Long-term memory is king of the storage hill and is what one is most likely to associate with the word "memory." Memories that are kept relevant long enough to become long-term memories are stored as "memory traces" in the brain Long-term potentiation is the process through which long-term memories are solidified, adding neural receptor sites on the brain 7 is generally regarded as the "magical number" of short-term memory - the amount of "bits" of information short-term memory typically stores Long-term memory is similar to the storage of data on a hard disk drive The final step in memory is retrieval. Retrieval often relies on cues Retrieval cues are small bits of outside information that serve to remind the brain of the relevant stored information "Priming" is a special take on retrieval cues - in which the brain is automatically "primed" to retrieve a certain topic based on previously viewing an example of that topic Context is also very important "Context" for retrieval involves everything from the state of mind one was in while a memory was encoded to where one was at the time

Reproducing the original settings of when a memory was encoded allows for the greatest recall of the pertinent memory This retriever waits for your call - your cue - to run to you Got all that? Good. Store it forever. It's important information. It could save the world some day. Don't drop the ball and forget. We're all counting on you. Thanks. by
Sylvan O'Sullivan Resources:
Richard C. Mohs - "How Human Memory Works." http://health.howstuffworks.com/human-body/systems/nervous-system/human-memory1.htm

David G. Myers - Psychology

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