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Transcript of Censorship
"Congress shall make no law respecting an establishment of religion, or prohibiting the free exercise thereof; or abridging the freedom of speech, or of the press; or the right of the people peaceably to assemble, and to petition the Government for a redress of grievances."
When does censorship start to violate the right to free speech?
Annalisa - Video Games
Shivaani - Parental Censorship
Max - Education System
Shane - Alcohol and Tobacco
Devyn - Free Speech
Jack - Political Systems Abroad
Torey - Regulation Comparisons
the suppression of speech or other public communication which may be considered objectionable, harmful, sensitive, politically incorrect or inconvenient as determined by a government, media outlet or other controlling body.
-The 1st Amendment protects Free Speech
-Find a balance between censorship and
upholding Free Speech
-More of a problem internationally
-It has been and will continue to be a big
-How much censorship is too much?
Would additional censorship for harmful substances be beneficiary?
What are the differences in regulation that occur throughout the world in terms of censorship?
Does censorship in the education system suppress intellectual development?
What is the affect of the Middle Eastern and North African political systems on censorship in their countries?
Totalitarian and Authoritarian Regimes
: the state holds total authority over society and seeks to control all aspects of public and private life wherever possible
: characterized by submission to authority where one or few leaders hold all the power; opposed to individualism and democracy
Threat of Media to Authoritarian Rule
Media encompasses all parts of a potential rebellion
1. journalists report on illegal activity
2. civilians could read the anti-government article
3. the protestors use internet to plan rebellion
How Governments Censor Media
1. Direct censorship
2. Contact website and demand removal of content
3. Install fear in journalists and citizens
4. File lawsuits against editors
2010-2011, Multiple Middle Eastern Countries
Arab Spring- revolutionary wave of demonstrations and protests, riots, and civil wars in the Arab world
-199 arrests were made of people who engaged in "informing the public"
-Protestors effectively used social media to organize
-Egyptian government shut down the internet for a
March 28, 2014, Egypt
Mayada Ashraf was gunned down by the police outside Cairo
-no proper investigation was conducted
-sparked international controversy
April 23, 2014, Egypt
Halawet Rouh was re-examined to look at appropriacy
-film is revolutionary for artistic expression
-interim Prime Minister cited an "infringement on moral values"
-200 media workers were killed or went missing in suspicious circumstances
The government tried to block Facebook and every video-sharing website
-people marched in the streets
Gmail and other internet activities were blocked
-rioting in the streets
Timeline of Censorship Controversy
Created with censorship in mind.
Failure to add certain "inappropriate" content to avoid challenges.
Sales prioritized over content.
Introduction of new texts is a "risk."
Jeopardizing jobs by teaching controversial material.
Students taught through the perspective of the censors.
Learning at a Disadvantage
Curriculum is altered depending on region.
Progressive regions teach students diverse perspectives and opinions.
Students in highly censored districts are taught with older texts and/or taught limited viewpoints.
"Censors produce a sterile conformity and a lack of intellectual and emotional growth in students." -Henry Reichman
50 percent of the population remains offline
Pornography has been a frequent target, as has social media content that promotes self-harm and suicide.
Censorship of these two substances dramatically differ
Tobacco Master Settlement Agreement (MSA)
"The Internet has given the world unimaginable economic and social benefit during these past 24 years" said by former U.S. Ambassador, Terry Kramer.
Last summer, Putin said that he intended to greatly expand the state’s hand in Internet governance.
Russia is moving forward with online censorship and governance.
The Chinese government’s censorship system targets information from within China as well.
China’s Internet censorship is chiefly aimed at controlling news about current politics and speech.
The regulations set out three systems for websites to operate legally.
Chinese media outlets usually employ their own monitors to ensure political acceptability of their content.
All of Korea is limited to the one and only news agency, Korea Central News agency.
Ruling elites have access to the World Wide Web, but the public is limited to a heavily monitored and censored network with no connections to the outside world.
Since these strict tobacco regulations have been put in place, use has declined
Youth exposure has continued to dramatically rise teen binge drinking has continues to rise
Only small numbers of foreign journalists are generally allowed limited access to the country each year, and they must be accompanied everywhere by minders.
Freedom of speech is considered an integral American value, as protected by the First Amendment to the United States Constitution.
Is alcohol the new tobacco?
For instance, it is legal to express certain forms of hate speech so long as one does not engage in the acts being described or urge others to commit illegal acts.
Free speech zones (also known as First Amendment Zones, Free speech cages, and Protest zones) are areas set aside in public places for citizens of the United States engaged in political activism to exercise their right of free speech.
The right to express any opinions without censorship or restraint.
Implement new policies, get rid of self-regulation
When it comes to these types of substances, censorship is necessary
Rhetorical Arts 1000 - 04 (75113)
What is the relationship between parental censorship and intellectual freedom as children progress through their academic careers?
Parental Censorship of the Media
Parental Control Software
Parental Rights in Education
CyberPatrol, Net Nanny and GuardiaNet
Software blocks access to web sites with content deemed inappropriate for children by software companies
Can customize Internet access and block sites on topics
Set guidelines for use of the Internet
ACLJ = American Center for Law and Justice
"The custody, care and nurture of the child resides first in the parents, whose primary function and freedom include preparation for obligations the state can neither supply nor hinder" Prince v. Massachusetts - Supreme Court
PPRA - Protection of Pupil Rights Act
Parents Action League
"I believe it is completely ethical to edit a movie that you have paid for in order to make it suitable for your kids"
"Our four children have never listened to a radio station"
The digital age gives individual families the liberty to act as their own censors
-There are many different ways in which to censor our media, freedom of speech and our government
-Knowledge of what is being censored
-How can my voice be heard?
- Political/Commercial/School Speeches
- Flag Burning
- Very Influential over past years
- Changed Interpretation of what Speech is
Determining Censorship of Speech
Brandenburg V. Ohio (1969)
- Imminent Lawless Test
- "Speech is protected until such time it advocates imminent lawlessness or violence."
What are different ways in which violent and social situations in video games are censored and what are the surrounding studies and opinions?
Suggested Entertainment Software Rating Board
Studies, Laws, and Opinions Relating to Video Games
Grand Theft Childhood
Video Games Not Tied To Violence"
- Journal of Youth and Adolescence
Media As Predictor For Adult Criminality"
Journal of Aggression, Maltreatment & Trauma
Video Games In Colleges" -
Psychological Studies 2001
Supreme Court Ruling
2005 Brown v. Entertainment Merchants Association
Video games "creative property" and free speech
Glance at Differing American Opinions
, PhD, Provost's Professor of Communication, Journalism, and Cinematic Arts at University of Southern California
, owner of Plug N' Play Computers and Games
, college student
parent of two sons who regularly play video games