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CH 11: movement and coordination

Class notes for a high school health class on skeletal, muscular, and nervous system
by

Kelly Quinlan

on 6 February 2013

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Transcript of CH 11: movement and coordination

Functions of the Skeletal System Bones - Hard connective tissue Ligaments - Hold bones together - Support
- Protection
- Movement
- Mineral storage
- Blood Cell Production (calcium/phosphorous) (in the Marrow) (muscles "pull" on bones) Structure of Bone Compact bone Cancellous Bone
(Spongey) Development of Bone A baby's skeleton is mostly made of cartilage which is slowly replaced by mature bone by adulthood Clavicle Scapula Humerus Ribs Sternum
(Breastbone) Radius Ulna Vertebral Column Pelvic girdle Femur Tibia Fibula Patella *Fig 7-15* * * * * Identify the following... 1 2 3 4 5 6 1 2 3 4 some health problems can lengthen fracture healing time such as: osteoporosis,
diabetes, or infections Fractures ex. thumb joint Skull Movement and Coordination (shoulder blade) (collarbone) Carpals Metacarpals Phalanges Tarsals Metatarsals Phalanges Warm up do you think bones are living or non-living things? Marrow Cavity (where blood cells are made) What are some example of how the skeleton is designed to "protect"? What is the skeleton protecting? (structural) Joints Connect bone and allow for movement What do you think life would be like without joints? What sorts of things wouldn't you be able to do? Do you think its safe/healthy for teens to lift weights? Keeping Bones Healthy Eat healthy

Exercise

Avoid injury - consuming a diet rich in calcium, phosphorus and vitamin D - builds strong bones which are less prone to injury or osteoporosis - by wearing proper safety equiptment during physical activity Bone Injuries Sprain Bicep Tricep external oblique Rectus abdominus pectoralis major Deltoid Quadriceps The Muscular System Exercise
Journal Assignment Compare and contrast how girls exercise
and how boys exercise. Are they different? if so, how/why? Is the there social pressure to look a certain way? isit stronger for boys or girls? Interview your parents or grandparents and see how they exercised when they were your age. Has the way teens exercise changed over time? Is the pressure to have or maintain a certain physical
condition changed? how so? Types of Muscle Skeletal Muscle -

Cardiac Muscle -

Smooth Muscle - connect to bone and are responsible for movement responsible for contractions of the heart in blood vessels and the digestive system. Responsible for contractions like peristalsis Keeping Muscular System Healthy Regular exercise: including warm-up, cool down, and stretching Avoiding Injury Strains -

Tendonitis - A pulled muscle due to over use or lack of stretcing before activity swollen, overused tendons Tendons connect muscle to bone Did you know... That not cooling down/stretching after exercise or long periods of standing/walking Lets thank about what we learned... Whats the difference between tendons and ligaments? Give an example of each of the 3 types of muscle tissue. Muscles work by contracting when stimulated by a nerve message Muscle cells Nerve What can you do to keep your muscles healthy? What are some types of muscular injuries? can cause
spider veins? Nervous System - Receives information from environment, processes information, and forms a response Neuron Carries information from one part of the body to
another 3 Types of Neurons Sensory Neurons - Gather information from outside the body. ex. the senses

Interneurons - carry information only in brain & spinal cord

Motorneurons - by command of other neurons, send impulses to muscles and glands If the phone rings,
_______neurons gather information about the sound and transport it to _______neurons which interpret the information and produce an instruction to the hand where ________neurons carry the signal to the muscles in the hand
which pick up the phone Let's think... Central Nervous System (brain & spinal cord) Peripheral Nervous System - control system of the body - network of nerves that links the rest of the body with the brain In groups, describe the function of each major section of the brain (cerebrum, cerebellum, and brain stem) and give an example of something that part of the brain is responsible for. Phineas Gage (1823-1860) A man working on the railroad in Vermont who was too close to a tamping iron when an accidental explosion sent the iron straight through his skull. Miraculously, he
walked away from the incident with little
physical damage besides the loss of his eye.

As time went on, family and friends began
to notice extreme personality changes in
Phineus. The once caring man was now
grossly perverse, had no reguard for other's
feelings, and was constantly developing crazy
new ideas. This was the first case where researchers could prove that the frontal lobe of the brain was responsible for personality, emotions, and judgement. His skull now lies in the Harvard . . . Museum of Medicine Activity With a partner, trace the
path of a stimuli to response. Include the different neurons and regions of the brain the impulse travels through on its journey. Also include when it is in the Peripheral Nervous System and when it is in the Central Nervous System Lets Practice... How does the brain receive information about the smell of cookies baking? Which of the three main parts of the brain is most likely involved in yawning? How do the left and right hemispheres of the cerebrum differ? How do most nerve impulses get to the brain? Reflexes - automatic response to the environment Stimuli Sensory neurons
in the skin Interneurons in the
spinal cord Motorneurons react to the stimuli (pin) Journal (Health at Home, pg 286) Consider an early memory, such as learning to ride a bike, the first day of school, or a particular family vacation. Describe your memory of the event. be sure to include sounds, smells, and sights. Now ask a family member to describe the same event. Then discuss how the memory differs from
person to person. - Nerve cell Messages of pain are sent to the brain shortly after the reflex Keeping Healthy Avoid injury to prevent concussions, which occurs when brain tissue hits the skull. (like a bruise on your brain) Injuries to the spinal cord could lead to paralysis Prevent infections by getting vaccinations for things like Meningitis, which can cause damaging inflammation to the brain and spinal cord gastrocnemius
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