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MACRO CHAPTER ONE

Generalist Practice with Organizations and Communities.
by

jose coll

on 16 October 2012

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Transcript of MACRO CHAPTER ONE

The History of Generalist Practice with
Organizations and Communities in the
Professional Context. See highlight 1.8 pages 36-38.
This will be an essay exam question so be sure to review it carefully.

Know the CSWE core competencies/ Educational Policy (EP). See pgs. 40-41

 IV. History and Core Competencies Engagement
Assessment: Identifying issues and collecting information
Assessment and Planning in Macro Practice: The PREPARE Process : page 35
Implementation and Evaluation in Macro Practice: The IMAGINE process: page 35
E. Termination in Macro Practice
F. Follow-up in Macro Practice Use of the Planned Change Process Must use research to improve one’s practice, improve policy and service delivery. Research Informed Practice A. Critical thinking—the ability to use intellectual and affective processes which evaluate statements, arguments, and experiences by judging the validity and/or worth of those statements, arguments, and experiences

B. Critical thinking in social work practice involves :
Asking questions
Assess the established facts & issues involved
Assert an informed concluding opinion

C. Practice fallacies that can trick practitioners into false beliefs. Employment of Critical Thinking Skills Organizational structure—the formal and informal manner in which tasks and responsibilities, lines of authority, channels of communication, and dimensions of power are established and coordinated within an organization.

Agency structure : formal and information. Examples?

Use of supervision Effective Work within an Organizational Structure
Advocacy
Human Rights
Social Justice
Economic Justice Advocacy for Human Rights and the Pursuit of Social and Economic Justice The Importance of Human Diversity Empowerment—the process of increasing personal, interpersonal, or political power so that individuals can take action to improve their life situations

Strengths perspective—focuses on client system resources, capabilities, knowledge, abilities, motivations, experience, intelligence, and other positive qualities that can be put to use to solve problems and pursue positive changes

Resiliency: Seeking Strength Amid Adversity Emphasis on Client Empowerment Awareness of Personal Values—Professionally obligated to prevent personal values that conflict with professional values from interfering with practice

D. Management of Ethical Dilemmas:



HOW DO YOU MANAGE ETHICAL DILEMMAS? III.3. Assimilation of Professional Values and Ethics (continued) Values:
Ethics:
NASW Code of Ethics
International Federation of Social Workers/International Association of Schools of Social Work Ethics in Social Work, Statement of Principles. III.2. Acquisition of Professional Values and Ethics

Systems theories: the macro client system; the target system; the change agent system; the action system
Human Behavior and the Social Environment (HBSE)
Social Welfare Policy and Services
Social Work Practice
Social Work Research (Evidence-based Practice)

Values and principles that guide practice III. Defining Generalist Practice A micro approach
A mezzo approach
A macro approach:
II. What Does Generalist Practice Mean?
an eclectic knowledge base,
professional values, and
a wide range of skills to target any size system for change I. The Generalist Intervention Model Chapter 1:
Introduction to Generalist Practice with Organizations and Communities Identify group project teams and brainstorm areas of interest Break into groups MACRO SOCIAL WORK Workers’ General Expectations of Supervisors: Keys to Empowerment (Halley et al., 1998; Kadushin Sheafor & Horejsi, 2003). See Highlight 2.5 p.76

Administrative Functions of Supervisors

Educational Functions of Supervisors: Supervision and consultation X. Working Under Supervisors Working Under Supervisors Time to define and respond 10 minutes; time to share, 5 minutes. Total time 15 minutes.
Break into four groups:
Turtle: Define. What would a turtle say?
Shark: Define. What would a shark say?
Teddy Bear: Define. What would a teddy bear say?
Fox: Define. What would a fox say? Conflict and Its Resolution. Pgs. 69-70 The Pros of Conflict (Johnson, 1997). What are they?


The Cons of Conflict (Daft, 1998).
What are they? Conflict and its resolution A. Interpersonal Conflict—occurs any time people involved in relationships, such as friends, family members, coworkers, or neighbors, have differing needs, wants, desires, expectations, goals, or means of achieving certain ends IX. Conflict and Its Resolution 10 minutes brainstorm; 10 minutes for three
groups to role play: 20 minutes total.
Break into three groups:
Group 1 Scenario A. Brainstorm. Choose how you respond. Present response.
Group 2 Scenario B: Brainstorm. Choose how you would respond. Present response.
Group 3 Scenario C. Brainstorm. Choose how you would respond. Present response. What Would You Do? Page 67 A. Assertive communication—verbal and nonverbal behavior that permits a speaker to get points across clearly and straightforwardly, considering own rights and rights of others
B. Nonassertive communication—devaluing self completely, feeling that the other person and what that person thinks is much more important than one’s own thoughts
Aggressive communication—bold and dominant verbal and nonverbal behavior, own view taking precedence above all others’ points of view VIII. Nonassertive, Assertive, and Aggressive Communication
Assertiveness involves expressing yourself without hurting others or stepping on their rights

B. Each of Us has Certain Assertive Rights
See Highlight 2.3 pgs. 62-64. VII. Appropriate Assertiveness in the Macro Environment: Empowering Yourself and Others A. Simple Encouragement
B. Be Sensitive to Cultural Differences
C. Paraphrasing—restating what the other person is saying, but using different words
D. Reflective Responding—translating into words what you think the other person is feeling
E. Clarification—making certain that what another person says is understood
Interpretation—seeking meaning beyond that of clarification VI. Communicating with Other People in Macro Contexts Warmth, Empathy and Genuineness Verbal and Nonverbal Behavior
Eye contact
Attentive listening. See Figure 2.2. p. 49
Facial expressions
Body positioning
Multicultural sensitivity and nonverbal behavior
Nonverbal Behavior, Communication, Empowerment, and People Who Have Physical Disabilities. See Highlight 2.1 p. 35 III. A Review of Basic Micro Skills Chapter 2:
Using Micro Skills in the Macro Environment Generalist Practice with Organizations and Communities
by Karen Kirst-Ashman and Grafton Hull E. Steps in Conflict Resolution (Johnson, 1986;1997).
Confrontation
Establish common ground
Emphasize importance of communication
Emphasize your willingness to cooperate
Empathize with your opponent’s perspective
Evaluate both your own and your opponent’s motivation to address conflict
Come to some mutually satisfactory agreement Conflict and its resolution Personal Styles for Addressing Conflict (Johnson, 1997)

What are they? Conflict and its resolution Conflict and Its Resolution Passive-aggressiveness—secretly or covertly aggressive
E. Advantages of assertiveness
F. Assertiveness training
Final note on assertiveness training
see Figure 2.3 page 66 VIII. Nonassertive, Assertive, and Aggressive Communication (continued) Nonassertive, Assertive, and Aggressive Communication A. Warmth—Conveying a feeling of interest, concern, well-being, and liking to another individual
Empathy—Being in tune with how other person feels, conveying the idea that you understand how he or she feels
Genuineness (Authenticity)—sharing of self by relating in a natural, sincere, spontaneous, open and genuine manner V. Warmth, Empathy, and Genuineness A. Assertiveness
B. Conflict
Working with Supervisors

Beginning Relationships in Macro Practice
An interview in macro practice includes communicating and problem solving with groups of clients, agency administrators, your colleagues, politicians, community residents, and professionals from various other community agencies
See figure 2.1 on page 46: macro environment I. Introduction Describe what your experience has been being supervised?

What did you like about it?

What would you improve? Working Under Supervisors G. Providing Information
H. Emphasizing People’s Strengths
I. Summarization—briefly covering the main points of a discussion or series of communications
J. Eliciting Information
The Use of “Why?”
Overlap of Techniques VI. Communicating with Other People in Macro Contexts (continued) Conflict is normal; can be positive or negative; fear and discomfort with conflict is common

Forms of Conflict: What are they? Managing Conflict Parliamentary procedure—a highly structured technique used by groups of various sizes to make decisions and conduct business

Robert’s Rules of Order (Robert, 1970)—first published in 1876, and the most commonly used set of procedures Parliamentary Procedure Plan ahead
Clarify purpose and establish objectives
Select participants
Select a time and place
Prepare an agenda
Start meetings on time Planning and Conducting Meetings Considering that you will be working in teams in this class for your class project/paper, answer the following:

How are you going to accomplish this task?
Choose a potential topic for the group project/paper.
How do you plan to deal with or minimize conflict?
How are you going to assign who does what?
Who will be the editor of the paper?
Share your findings. Five minutes for each group to share. Working in and With Teams Types of Networks. Examples?

Problems with Networks. Examples?

Worker Roles in Networking. Examples? Networking
Networks—a number of individuals or organizations that are interconnected to accomplish a goal that each feels is worthwhile
Importance of Networking. Why are they important? Networking Use of Self. What does this mean?
Using the media
Task skills and Managing conflict
Administration
Power. What does this mean to you? Introduction and Leadership
Skills Identifying Target for Change: Example?
Capacity to inspire. What does this mean
Assertiveness
Communication Skills and Leading by example. What does this mean?
Bringing new perspectives: Big picture Introduction and Leadership
Skills Chapter 3:
Group Skills for Organizational and Community Change Generalist Practice with Organizations and Communities
by Karen Kirst-Ashman and Grafton Hull Types of Conflict (Bisno, 1988; Strom-Gottfried, 1998). What are they?

Advanced Conflict Management: Guidelines and Strategies. What are they? Managing Conflict Basic parliamentary
Concepts

Main motions. What are they?

Other parliamentary rules. What are some? Parliamentary Procedure State the ending time at the start
Let people know how much of your time they can have
Keep the group on target
End the meeting on time
Plan for follow-up meetings






Planning and Conducting Meetings In class exercise: take 30-45 minutes to answer the questions on the next slide.

Break into your teams.

Review the characteristics of Effective Teams (Larson Fatout & Rose, 1995). Working In and With Teams Advantages of parliamentary procedure?

Disadvantages of parliamentary procedure? Parliamentary Procedure Common Problems encountered in organizations:

Impersonal behavior
Lack of rewards & recognition
Knowing written & unwritten rules
Understanding policies and working within the policies Understanding Organizations Servant Leadership:

Robert Greenleaf
Leaders should be attentive to concerns of their followers – empathize – care & nurturing
A calling – listening – empathy – healing – awareness – persuasion – conceptualization – foresight – stewardship – growth – building community ….
SOUND familiar?!

http://www.greenleaf.org/ Understanding Organizations Total Quality Management (TQM):

W. Edwards Deming
Emphasizes organizational process, excellent quality service, & empowerment of employees
Clients as customers – focused on customer needs and satisfaction – feedback
Quality is the primary goal
Accuracy + consistency + responsiveness + availability + perceived value = service experience Understanding Organizations Newer approaches to management:

Teamwork and team empowerment – advantages over working individually

Managing diversity – appreciation of diversity rather than conformity Understanding Organizations Newer approaches to management:

Constructing a culture of caring…

Job ownership
Higher purpose
Emotional bonding
Trust
Pride in one’s work Understanding Organizations How to survive a bureaucracy!
Develop & USE a sense of humor
Learn to accept your mistakes
Build a support system
Give in sometimes – pick your fights!
Keep yourself fit and mentally alert
Leave your work at the office
Occasionally take your supervisors out to lunch
Do no seek ego satisfaction
Make speeches to community groups which accentuate the positives of your agency
Maintain some direct service contact
Identify your career goals & determine if they can be met within the system Understanding Organizations Social Work Organizations:
ACOSA – Association for Community Organization & Social Administration
NASW-National Association of Social Workers
CSWE-Council on Social Work Education
IASSW – International Association of Schools of Social Work
IFSW – International Federation of Social Workers
ICSW – International Council on Social Work Understanding Organizations The nature of organizations…

You’ll probably work in
a social work setting or
a host setting - the main service is not a social service and there is a variety of professional staff (hospital, school)

Centralized or decentralized organizations

Mission Statements – a broad and brief declaration of the agency’s purpose – usually includes the population served and the needs to be met

Goals – statements of expected outcomes – direction – elaborate on the mission statement

Organizational structure – org. chart – defines how tasks are distributed and coordinated – can be formal AND informal Understanding Organizations 27 Free template from www.brainybetty.com 8/9/2012 See you next week Total Quality Management (continued):

Employee empowerment
Use of teams & teamwork
Strong support and leadership from the top
A culture of quality Understanding Organizations 17 Free template from www.brainybetty.com 8/9/2012 New approaches to management How to survive a bureaucracy!
Employ the problem-solving approach
Identify needs – generate solutions – evaluate solutions – select a solution – implement a solution – evaluate the solution
Learn how your bureaucracy is structured and functions
Remember bureaucracies are people too!
Declare a truce if you are at war with your bureaucracy
Know your work expectations
Continue to develop your knowledge and skills
Identify your strengths & limitations
Be aware that you can’t change everything!
Learn how to control your emotions Understanding Organizations 2 Free template from www.brainybetty.com 8/9/2012 Free template from www.brainybetty.com 24 8/9/2012 What are some? Common Problems in organizations Newer approaches to management:

The learning organization …
Everyone is engaged in identifying & solving problems
Power is redistributed
Employees are encouraged to be creative
Client’s perceptions of service are sought out
Use of multidisciplinary teams
Open information is promoted
A higher purpose – the greater good Understanding Organizations 10 Free template from www.brainybetty.com 8/9/2012 8/9/2012 3 Free template from www.brainybetty.com 8/9/2012 26 Free template from www.brainybetty.com 8/9/2012 Considering that you will be working in teams in this class for your class project/paper, answer the following:
How are you going to accomplish this task?
Choose a potential topic for the group project/paper.
How do you plan to deal with or minimize conflict?
How are you going to assign who does what?
Who will be the editor of the paper?
What are your preliminary/draft goals?
Have one person type this up; include the names of those who participated and send to Dr. McInnis at the end of class. Team Project Assignment 12 8/9/2012 Evidence-based practice: use of proven best practice based on the evidence. Must have a proven track record. Servant Leadership:

Robert Greenleaf
Leaders should be attentive to concerns of their followers – empathize – care & nurturing
A calling – listening – empathy – healing – awareness – persuasion – conceptualization – foresight – stewardship – growth – building community ….
SOUND familiar?!

http://www.greenleaf.org/ Understanding Organizations Newer approaches to management:

Teamwork and team empowerment – advantages over working individually

Managing diversity – appreciation of diversity rather than conformity Understanding Organizations Social Work Organizations:
ACOSA – Association for Community Organization & Social Administration
NASW-National Association of Social Workers
CSWE-Council on Social Work Education
IASSW – International Association of Schools of Social Work
IFSW – International Federation of Social Workers
ICSW – International Council on Social Work Understanding Organizations
Culture-Quality Theories – Total quality management – focus on organizational culture and quality improvement – shared positive values & norms while emphasizing quality, service, performance

Systems Theory – All parts of the organization are interrelated and function together – stress constant assessment and adjustment Understanding Organizations Classical Organizational Theories
Early theories viewed the employee as having a specific task and being told how to do that task – close supervision – minimal independent functioning – emphasis on productivity – performance quantified:
Scientific Management – Taylor
Administrative Theory of Management – Fayol
Bureaucracy – Weber

Neoclassical Organizational Theories
Mid 20th century – in reaction to the classical theories, focus shifted toward the employee’s motivation – human needs – coordination of work - relationships Understanding Organizations Common Problems encountered in organizations:

Impersonal behavior
Lack of rewards & recognition
Knowing written & unwritten rules
Understanding policies and working within the policies Understanding Organizations Total Quality Management (TQM):

W. Edwards Deming
Emphasizes organizational process, excellent quality service, & empowerment of employees
Clients as customers – focused on customer needs and satisfaction – feedback
Quality is the primary goal
Accuracy + consistency + responsiveness + availability + perceived value = service experience Understanding Organizations Newer approaches to management:

The learning organization …
Everyone is engaged in identifying & solving problems
Power is redistributed
Employees are encouraged to be creative
Client’s perceptions of service are sought out
Use of multidisciplinary teams
Open information is promoted
A higher purpose – the greater good Understanding Organizations Newer approaches to management:

Constructing a culture of caring…

Job ownership
Higher purpose
Emotional bonding
Trust
Pride in one’s work Understanding Organizations How to survive a bureaucracy!
Develop & USE a sense of humor
Learn to accept your mistakes
Build a support system
Give in sometimes – pick your fights!
Keep yourself fit and mentally alert
Leave your work at the office
Occasionally take your supervisors out to lunch
Do no seek ego satisfaction
Make speeches to community groups which accentuate the positives of your agency
Maintain some direct service contact
Identify your career goals & determine if they can be met within the system Understanding Organizations How to survive a bureaucracy!
Employ the problem-solving approach
Identify needs – generate solutions – evaluate solutions – select a solution – implement a solution – evaluate the solution
Learn how your bureaucracy is structured and functions
Remember bureaucracies are people too!
Declare a truce if you are at war with your bureaucracy
Know your work expectations
Continue to develop your knowledge and skills
Identify your strengths & limitations
Be aware that you can’t change everything!
Learn how to control your emotions Understanding Organizations The macro context of organizations:
Shrinking resources
Manages health care
Outside funding sources
Personnel
Licensing/certification
Legitimation (authority to perform agency functions)
Client sources Understanding Organizations Lines of authority – who reports to whom?
Channels of communication – how is info conveyed?
Power & Politics – who has actual power?

Legitimate power – attained because of one’s position and authority

Reward power – held because of the ability to reward others

Coercive power – held due to having the capability to punish

Referent power – held as a result of respect

Expert power – held due to a particular expertise Understanding Organizations Understanding Organizations: Power The nature of organizations…

You’ll probably work in
a social work setting or
a host setting - the main service is not a social service and there is a variety of professional staff (hospital, school)

Centralized or decentralized organizations

Mission Statements – a broad and brief declaration of the agency’s purpose – usually includes the population served and the needs to be met

Goals – statements of expected outcomes – direction – elaborate on the mission statement

Organizational structure – org. chart – defines how tasks are distributed and coordinated – can be formal AND informal Understanding Organizations
Economics Theory - how organizations should proceed to maximize profit – efficiency – cost effectiveness – similar to the classical theories

Chaos Theory – focus on the complexities affecting an organization’s ability to function – seeks patterns within the complexity – recognizes the positive aspects of change and expression of human diversity

Contingency Theory – Each element of the organization is dependent on other elements – focus is on different solutions to problems depending on the variables involved – flexibility – no one best way to do something Understanding Organizations
Human Relations Theories – focus on morale, motivation, the immediate work group (mezzo environment); Theory x and Theory Y managers

Feminist Theories – Focus on women’s self-determination & empowerment – gender filter, end of patriarchy, consciousness raising, importance of process, unity, validation of the nonrational (intuition)

The Cultural Perspective – focus on organizational culture – the norms, values, standards Understanding Organizations Total Quality Management (continued):

Employee empowerment
Use of teams & teamwork
Strong support and leadership from the top
A culture of quality Understanding Organizations Free template from www.brainybetty.com 8/9/2012 New approaches to management Systems theory can serve as an umbrella approach for defining and understanding macro systems

Terms to know:
System
Boundaries
Subsystem
Homeostasis
Role
Relationship
Input
Output
Outcome Understanding Organizations Understanding Organizations Chapter Four Free template from www.brainybetty.com 8/9/2012 Considering that you will be working in teams in this class for your class project/paper, answer the following:
How are you going to accomplish this task?
Choose a potential topic for the group project/paper.
How do you plan to deal with or minimize conflict?
How are you going to assign who does what?
Who will be the editor of the paper?
What are your preliminary/draft goals?
Have one person type this up; include the names of those who participated and send to Dr. McInnis at the end of class. Team Project Assignment 8/9/2012 Free template from www.brainybetty.com 8/9/2012
Organizations (definition) (Daft, 2004). What are they?

Social services: Define? Non-profit....

Social agencies—organizations providing social services that are usually staffed by human services personnel (including professional social workers, members of other professions, paraprofessionals, clerical personnel, and sometimes volunteers) Defining Organizations, Social Services, and Social Agencies Free template from www.brainybetty.com 8/9/2012 Organizational theories – a way to conceptualize how organizations function:
Classical organizational theories
Human Relations theories
Feminist theories
Economics theory
Chaos theory
Culture quality theories
Systems theory Understanding Organizations Free template from www.brainybetty.com 8/9/2012 See you next week Free template from www.brainybetty.com 8/9/2012 What are some? Common Problems in organizations Step 4: PREPARE—Identify relevant People of influence
Step 5: PREPARE—Assess potential costs and benefits to clients and agency
Step 6: PREPARE—Review professional and personal Risk
Step 7: PREPARE—Evaluate the potential success of a macro change process IV. The Process of Organizational Change A. Change agent—the person who feels some change within the agency is needed
B. Action system—the people and resources you will organize and employ to work toward the needed change
C. Innovation proposal—the idea you want to implement
D. Action plan—a detailed blueprint for how to go about achieving the desired change
E. Two major tasks: set your goals and identify opposition III. Beginning the Change Process Apply the PREPARE model to your case, step by step.
You will work in your teams and have the rest of the class time to complete this assignment.
When complete, you will know how to complete a large part of your project/paper. In-class Assignment II The planned change process
Case Example – Deciding to go macro
Step 1: PREPARE – Identify problems to address
Step 2: PREPARE—Review your macro and personal Reality
Step 3: PREPARE—Establish primary goals IV. The Process of Organizational Change II. Change in Organizations
Undertaking specific projects: usually delegated, short term.
Initiating and developing programs: the need to develop a new program
Changing agency policies: the need to change the working environment. I. Introduction Chapter 5:
PREPARE – Decision Making for Organizational Change GENERALIST PRACTICE WITH ORGANIZATIONS AND COMMUNITIES
BY KAREN KIRST-ASHMAN AND GRAFTON HULL In-Class Exercise Apply PREPARE model to your project Have a great weekend See you next week Group exercise IMAGINE Evaluate Progress
Are we meeting our goals?
What is working and what can be improved?
Are we fulfilling a need?
Are we making efficient use of resources?
Are there side effects we didn’t plan for?


Chapter 10 explores evaluation in-depth IMAGINE: ‘E’ Neutralize opposition to the plan – how?
Collaborate
Use persuasion
Understand the phases of resistance: negativism; resistence dies down a bit; conflict emerges; potential sabotage
Educate the decision makers
Discuss options
Suggest a committee be formed to consider the plan
Appeal to fairness!
Point out negative consequences of remaining status quo
Ask if partial change is possible
Develop rational arguments for change IMAGINE: ‘N’ Mustering support: the ‘M’ in IMAGINE

After you have your idea, you need to muster support from others … Who???

The macro practice environment consists of :

The macro client system: figure 6.3: who will ultimately benefit.


Who will ultimatley benefit from your group project? WHO? IMAGINE: deals with implementation and evaluation I – start with an innovative IDEA. See case example. What are you doing?
M – MUSTER support: who do you want to influence and how to do it?
A – Identify ASSETS
G – Specify GOALS and action steps
I – IMPLEMENT the plan
N – NEUTRALIZE the opposition
E – EVALUATE the progress IMAGINE – A process for
organizational change Objectives – action steps to achieve the goals IMAGINE: ‘G’ Specify goals – what do you want to accomplish?


You need objectives.

Objectives begin with words such as: improving; identifying; utilize; understand; develop, etc. IMAGINE: ‘G’ for Goals Identify assets – what are assets?

What assets can you identify for your group project? IMAGINE: The ‘A’ for identifying assets. The action system – people who are committed to working together to attain the macro change.


Who are the people committed to working with you on the project other than your team members? IMAGINE: M IMAGINE.
I stands for Innovative Idea.


What is your innovative idea for your group project?
a. Department Web page
b. Feeding the Homeless
c. Boys & Girls Club
d. Veteran Suicide Awareness
e. Migrant Self-Help IMAGINE: The ‘I’ During the PREPARE stage, you focused on assessment and planning.


Which have you selected for your group project?
Undertaking a project or
Developing a program or
Changing agency policy IMAGINE: Break into your groups and
address the following The PREPARE process deals with the decision whether to pursue a macro change – the assessment and planning steps of the planned change process

IMAGINE – implementing the plan for change and evaluating your success


THINK OF THE GIM MODEL IMAGINE – A process for
organizational change How to Implement Macro Intervention: Changing Agency Policy Chapter 6: IMAGINE a. Write objective(s) for each goal.

b. What are your primary goals for your group project?

c. Write action steps for each objective. IMAGINE: Objectives and Action Steps
a. What are your primary goals for your group project?

b. Write objective(s) for each goal.

c. Write action steps for each objective. IMAGINE: Objectives and Action Steps
SHORT EXERCISE IMAGINE IMAGINE IMAGINE LEADERSHIP After you have developed your idea and your change plan, you can now apply the “IMAGINE” process to implement the change
Idea
Muster support
Assets – money, people, time, supplies
Goals, objectives, & action steps
Implement the plan
Neutralize the opposition
Evaluate the progress - monitor Change in communities Access your macro & personal reality – what works for and against you in change efforts?
Asset mapping – identify resources within the community – human, financial, material
Built, natural, social, economic, & service assets
Cataloging skills
Barriers to asset mapping?
Pursuing change
Assessing target systems

Establish Primary Goals Change in communities Beginning the change process:

Engagement in the community
Making contacts
Professional use of self – employing your knowledge of the community, the client system, micro & meso skills to further macro intervention
Implement the “PREPARE” process
Identify the problems to address
Research the problem carefully
Community capacity building (asset building) – identifying strengths; empowering Change in communities Empowerment is the goal of community practice
drawing out abilities of community members
teaching and modeling new abilities

Approaches to community change:
Working with the power structure

Challenge the power structure

Neighborhood maintenance – a combines a consensual, peer pressure system with legal action and political lobbying Change in communities Macro Practice in Communities Chapter 8 Faculty: Of your own choosing In-class exercise Identify Relevant people of influence
People who get things done
People to whom others look for guidance
People who can motivate
People who can lead
People who have connections
People who have specific skills
Assess Potential Costs & benefits
Review Professional & Personal risk
Evaluate the potential change process – pros & cons Change in communities Perspectives on the community:
The community is the context in which we work

The community is the target of our change efforts

The community is the mechanism for change Change in communities 5 Competencies needed to engage in empowerment:
Informational – SW knowledge
Intellectual – how to use knowledge with client system
Intrapersonal – caring about the community
Interpersonal – engaging the community
Interventional – utilize skills in pursuit of empowerment Change in Communities Faculty: Of your own choosing In-class exercise After you have developed your idea and your change plan, you can now apply the “IMAGINE” process to implement the change
Idea
Muster support
Assets – money, people, time, supplies
Goals, objectives, & action steps
Implement the plan
Neutralize the opposition
Evaluate the progress - monitor Change in communities Identify Relevant people of influence
People who get things done
People to whom others look for guidance
People who can motivate
People who can lead
People who have connections
People who have specific skills
Assess Potential Costs & benefits
Review Professional & Personal risk
Evaluate the potential change process – pros & cons Change in communities Access your macro & personal reality – what works for and against you in change efforts?
Asset mapping – identify resources within the community – human, financial, material
Built, natural, social, economic, & service assets
Cataloging skills
Barriers to asset mapping?
Pursuing change
Assessing target systems

Establish Primary Goals Change in communities Beginning the change process:

Engagement in the community
Making contacts
Professional use of self – employing your knowledge of the community, the client system, micro & meso skills to further macro intervention
Implement the “PREPARE” process
Identify the problems to address
Research the problem carefully
Community capacity building (asset building) – identifying strengths; empowering Change in communities Perspectives on the community:
The community is the context in which we work

The community is the target of our change efforts

The community is the mechanism for change Change in communities Empowerment is the goal of community practice
drawing out abilities of community members
teaching and modeling new abilities

Approaches to community change:
Working with the power structure

Challenge the power structure

Neighborhood maintenance – a combines a consensual, peer pressure system with legal action and political lobbying Change in communities Macro Practice in Communities Chapter 9 5 Competencies needed to engage in empowerment:
Informational – SW knowledge
Intellectual – how to use knowledge with client system
Intrapersonal – caring about the community
Interpersonal – engaging the community
Interventional – utilize skills in pursuit of empowerment Change in Communities
Full transcript