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Numbered Treaties & First Nations

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by

Faiza Usmani

on 7 January 2014

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Transcript of Numbered Treaties & First Nations

Treaty
#1-5
These treaties covered mainly province of Manitoba and the Northwest Territories which is now Saskatchewan, northwestern Ontario and Alberta
Secure land from the aboriginals for settlement, agriculture and industrial development
Aboriginals were to give up their land rights
Government in return provided them with supplies and better clothes so they would look civilized
In return they received many things, reserve lands, cash, blankets, tools, help with farming
In return they had to keep peace and listen to all laws




Treaty 6 and 7
Treaty 6-1876
Signed by plains and wood Cree aboriginals
This treaty was very similar to the first 5
Government faced problems because aboriginals had concerns about previous laws
More Europeans moved which caused the diseases to spread and killed many more aboriginals, this treaty provided health care (Only one that did)
Treaty 7
Was signed by many aboriginals
More successful in negotiating for more money
Last treaty signed until 1899
Treaties 8-11
Indian Act
Majority of aboriginals who lived on the prairies had signed the treaties
The federal government passed an act to make minor changes previous laws that concerned the aboriginals
Act turned them into legal wards
The act had conditions for being an Indian such as woman who married aboriginal men were considered Indians, earned other cultural and social benefits by becoming an Indian
Half-breed Indians (such as the Metis) were not Indians but were considered white
Act had rules for aboriginal land; government was allowed to take their resources from them such as their forests
Indian act brought all laws dealing with aboriginal peoples and their land

Why did the Aboriginals sign the treaties?
We're not forced to sign treaties, they were put in difficult situations
They thought if they singed the treaties with the government it would protect their old life and help their new ways
Their food resources were lowering
3 main reasons they signed treaties:
Disappearance of the buffalo:
Used to be many buffaloes, but then people started hunting them for more than food
Started being hunted for skin
Eventually became a sport and almost few to none buffaloes were left
1877 they made a law to protect the buffalo but it was too late

The First Nations
first nations were different groups of Aboriginals who arrived before the explorers
The word "Indian" was used for the First Nations
Aboriginal people had no opinion in formations of the country or government
Not seen as Independent nations
Did not have the right for their own decisions
Viewed their relationship with Canada as an extension with the
British Crown

1876 federal government passed Indian act
currently over 700,000 first nations people in Canada
they had a lot of land to themselves because they arrived before the settlers
they had many different cultures and traditions
the word "Aboriginal" includes all first nations,
metis and inuits
to this day there are many aboriginals but most live in very remote areas

Numbered Treaties & First Nations
Numbered Treaties
Signed from 1899-1921
Were signed over a period of two decades
No health care provided
Treaty 8 was signed in 1899 for the federal government
Treaty 9 was singed in 1905 & 1906 for the land in northern Ontario
Treaty 10 was signed in 1906, aboriginals gave up their land rights to Canada for European settlement
Treaty 11 signed in 1921, was for land in the Northwest Territories and Yukon
only difference in the treaties was in treaty 8, where a creation of family reserves for individual families
Some didn't want to sign treaty 8 because they thought it would ruin their lifestyle completely
What is the British Crown?
The British Crown is the symbol of the power of the British monarchy
First Nations came looking for buffalo but found none and were victims of starvation
Since they were starving they singed treaties hoping that the farming on the lands would provide food
Increase of settlement
Many settlers came because a new railway was moved
First Nations lost a battle against the settlers and their land was taken and many people were killed
They thought the treaties would help the situation
Sickness and diseases were another major reason many treaties were signed
When Europeans came they brought many diseases ( measles, tuberculosis, smallpox)
More settlers came Which increased and spread the disease
Aboriginals had no cure for them and their medicines could not help
Many people died which decreased the population of the aboriginals
About 800 died due to small pox
Main reasons treaties were signed were for the promised land, hunting & fishing rights, money, medical care, help with education

also known as post-confederation treaties
11 treaties in all (1871-1921)
From 1871-1877 7 treaties were signed from the southern and central parts of the prairies were signed
From 1889-1921 the rest of the 4 were signed, they were mainly from northern parts of Canada
Numbered so that they could keep track of which one was which
Purpose was to put rights and get more land and create farmland for settlers
Extend Canada's nation
Agreements that set promises
Keep peace and be beneficial for both sides
Aboriginals signed most treaties so they could keep their culture and in exchange they would share their land with the Canadians
Issues Aboriginals
Are Facing Today
Poorer health (chronic disease-diabetes, heart disease) are increasing
Health issues are increasing
Higher rate of respiratory and other diseases
Living conditions, unhealthy environment are factors
Less education
In 2006 34% between the age of 25-64 have not completed high school
44% haven't completed post-secondary
Not enough proper resources to teach
Living conditions are not good, overcrowded
One house with too many people
Lower income levels ( earn less $)
Higher death rate among children and youth
Injuries that are caused by accident
Early death caused by drowning ( leads to living conditions, since they live in cold climates they go fishing which can cause deaths)
Aboriginal people (specifically children) are 3-4x more likely to die
Rate of suicide is about 5-7x higher
Factors leading to it- poverty, health
Conditions, isolation
Don't have proper health care
Don't have proper cures when someone gets sick
What Is a Treaty?
A treaty is an agreement that gives out specific rights, responsibilities and relationships between countries.
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