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Transcript of 1970s
•David Cassidy as Keith Partridge
•Susan Dey as Laurie Partridge
•Danny Bonaduce as Danny Partridge
•Jeremy Gelbwaks as Chris Partridge
•Suzanne Crough as Tracy Partridge Main Casts
•Carroll O’Connor as Archie Bunker
•Jean Stapleton as Edith Bunker
•Sally Struthers as Gloria Stivic
•Rob Reiner as Michael Stivic The Cunningham family live through the 1950's with help and guidance from the lovable and almost superhuman greaser, Fonzie. starring Gavin MacLeod as Captain Merrill Stubing,
Bernie Kopell as Dr. Adam "Doc" Bricker, "Your Ship's Doctor"
Fred Grandy as Burl "Gopher" Smith, "Your Yeoman Purser"
Ted Lange as Isaac Washington, "Your Bartender"
Lauren Tewes as ulie McCoy, "Your Cruise Director"
Jill Whelan as Vicki Stubing, the captain's daughter
Ted McGinley as Ashley "Ace" Covington Evans "Your Ship's Photographer" The National Action Committee (NAC) was formed as a result of the frustration of women at the inaction of the federal government in regards to the recommendations of the Royal Commission. Beginning in 1972 as a coalition of 23 women's groups, by 1986 it had 350 organizational members, including the women's caucuses of the three biggest political parties. Nationwide protests in the US started when President Nixon declared attack in Cambodia March 30, 1972 North Vietnam invades South Vietnam US comes to the rescue October 11, 1972 North Vietnam gained control Paris Peace Accord was signed on January 27, 1973 and the US withdrew from the war (1979-1989) The People's Democratic Party of Afghanistan came into power April 27, 1978 The Soviet Union and Afghanistan signed a friendship treaty December 5, 1978 Afghanistan asks Soviet for help Hafizullah Amin He ordered the death of Nur Muhammad Taraki December 27, 1979 A civil war began months after its independence A conflict emerged between two Angolan factions The MPLA (Marxist Popular Movement for the Liberation of Angola) represented communism while the UNITA
(The National Union for the Total Independence of Angola) stood for anti-communism The war lasted for 27 years (1975-2002) (1974-1991) The "Dergue", a military committee, came into power by overthrowing Emperor Haile Selassie General Aman Andom became the spokesperson for the Dergue but he was later killed during a bloody battle called "Bloody Saturday" Mengistu Mariam executed General Tefari Abante who replaced Aman. Various rebellious groups threatened the Dergue because they wanted a democratic government ran by civilians The EPRP (Ethiopian People's Revolutionary Party) launched terrorist attacks called "White Terror" Mengistu launched the "Red Terror" to counter the EPRP's attack This resulted to tens of thousands of dead bodies lying around the streets as men, women, and children were mercilessly murdered due to political alliances and cultural backgrounds Civil War The Egyptians wanted their lost land back from Israel but Israel rejected their request Pierre Gemayel Maronite Christian Phalangist leader Palestenian gunmen attempted to assassinate him on April 13, 1975 Lebanon asks for Syrian's help The Syrian Arab Deterrent Force (ADF) was formed to maintain peace. Israel invades Southern Lebanon in 1978 The UN asked Israel to withdraw from Lebanon and formed the UNIFIL Instead, Israel handed it over to the Christian Lebanese militia Bangladesh Liberation War Pakistani War of 1971 This tv show is about the staff of an army hospital in the Korean war that find out that laughter is the best way to deal with their situation. M*A*S*H is an American television series developed by Larry Gelbart, adapted from the 1970 feature film MASH (which was itself based on the 1968 novel MASH. The series premiered in the U.S. on September 17, 1972, and ended February 28, 1983 The Six Million Dollar Man aired on the ABC network as a regular series for five seasons from 1974 to 1978. CHiPs is an American television drama series produced by MGM Studios (now owned by Turner Entertainment) that originally aired on NBC from September 15, 1977, to July 17, 1983. Mork & Mindy is an American science fiction sitcom broadcast from 1978 until 1982 on ABC. The Love Boat (Love Boat in its final season) is an American television series set on a cruise ship, which aired on the ABC Television Network from September 24, 1977, until May 24, 1986. The show starred Gavin MacLeod as the ship's captain. The series aired on CBS from 1978 to 1991. The Canadian Human Rights Acts was Passed by prime minister of the time, Pierre Trudeau, it gave basic rights to all humans. There was no discrimination based on sex, race, religion, sexuality etc... It specified that there must be "equal pay for work of equal value". The 1970s started a mainstream affirmation of the environmental issues early activists from the 1960s, such as Rachel Carson and Murray Bookchin had warned of. On April 22, 1970, the United States celebrated its first Earth Day in which over two thousand colleges and universities and roughly ten thousand primary and secondary schools participated. The opposition to the War in Vietnam that began in the 1960s grew exponentially during the early 1970s. One of the best-known anti-war demonstrations was the Kent State shootings. In 1970 university students were protesting the war and the draft. Riots ensued during the weekend and the National Guard was called in to maintain the peace. However, by 4 May 1970, tensions arose again, and as the crowd grew larger, the National Guard started shooting. Four students were killed and nine injured. This event caused disbelief and shock throughout the country and became a staple of anti-Vietnam demonstrations. The State of Pakistan and East Pakistan fought on March 26, 1971 The Awami League led by Sheikh Mujibur Rahman won the general elections in 1970 by a landslide Zulfikar Ali Bhutto, the Chairman of the Pakistan People’s Party, refused to let the Awami League take over Sheikh declared the independence of Bangladesh before he was captured by Pakistan Army The Pakistani army massacred innocent Bengalis in Dhaka and started a brutal war in East Pakistan to prevent their withdrawal On December 16, 1971, the Pakistan army surrendered when the Indian army came to help East Pakistan December 3-16, 1971 About 10 million refugees fled to India from East Pakistan Indira Ghandi, the Prime Minister of India, decided to support them India invades East Pakistan on December The Pakistan Army surrendered in Dhaka A 1972 American Crime film about a Mafia leader by the name of Don Vito Corleone who wanted his son Michael to take part in his Mafia business. Don likes to live his life in the old country, but because of his colleagues who want to run business in the modern times it causes rivalry and conflict with the Corelone family. The two main characters in this movie are Marlon Brando as Don Vito Corleone (father), and Al Pacino as Michael Corleone (son). women wore them with tight blouses On June 17,1972 seven burgurlars both directly and indirecty employed by Nixon's committee broke into the office and stole important documents resulted in the indictment , trial, conviction, and incarceration of 43 people On 18 November 1978 918 members of the People's Temple church died of drinking cyanide filled punch In the 1979 general election, the Conservatives came to power and Thatcher became prime minister. Directed by Francis Ford Coppola It became commercially available in 1971 and was about 8 inches in diameter In 1971 only about 1 percent of households had microwaves Martin Cooper of Motorola transmitted the first cell phone call ever By the end of the decade pocket calculators were affordable and had become common in schools A 1975 Horror/thriller film about three men a police chief, a marine scientist, and a grizzled fisherman set out to capture and kill a huge great white shark that is killing most of the people on their island community. Directed by: Steven Spielberg The three main characters in this movie are:
Roy Shedier as Brody. (Police chief).
Robert Shaw as Quint (Marine Scientist).
Richard Deryfuss as Hooper (Fisherman). A 1974 American crime, mystery, and drama film about JJ. Gittes, a private detective that is hired by Evelynn Mulwray after she suspects that her husband (a high profile chief engineer for the Los Angeles department of water and power) is having an affair. During JJ. Gittes time spying on Mr. Mulwray, he finds him with another woman. Later on he finds out that Mulwray is being framed, and he himself is being set up by Mrs. Mulwray. Hollis Mulwray is reported dead, which is all related to the cities water supply. Directed by Roman Polanski. Main Characters:
Jack Nicholson as JJ. Gittes
Faye Dunaway as Evelynn Mulwray
Darnell Zwerling as Hollis Mulwray. Directed by Milos Forman A 1975 American comedy and drama about a man named McMurphy who had a criminal past and gotten himself in trouble again with the law. He thinks the only way to get out of Prison is to act like he is mentally ill. His plan backfires and he is send to a psychiatric hospital. He gets along well with his inmates but Nurse Ratched is after him at every turn. Main Characters:
Jack Nicholson as McMurphy
Louise Dletcher as Nurse Ratched
Michael Berryman as Ellis. Directed by Martin Scorese A 1976 American thriller about a ex-marine and vietnam war veteran living in new york city. who suffers from a diseaseand spends his nights working as a taxi driver. He is a loner who has very strong opinions about whats right and wrong with mankind. The only person in his life that makes him happy is Betsy, he becomes obsessed with her. After something happens between him and Betsy he tries to make the world a better place. He starts off by helping a 12 year old girl Iris, a prostitute runaway who no longer finds intrest in her profession. Main characters:
Robert De Niro as Travis Bickle
Jodie Foster as Iris
Cybill Shepard as Betsy. Directed by Richard Donner A 1978 action film about a boy from another planet (krypton) who is sent to earth by his father as a young boy. Superman grew up on a farm and started his carrier as a news reporter. He figures out he has super powers and he must use them for good. He used his super powers to defeat the villian Lex Luthor. Main Characters:
Christopher Reeve as superman/Clark Kent
Margot Kidder as Lois Lane
Gene Hackman as Lex Luthor Directed by William Friedkin 1971 American action, crime, and thriller film about two NYC cops who try to stop a heroin shipment coming from France. The two French men who are trying to send the heroin over to NYC decide to kill Doyle and Russo (New York City cops) so it would be easier to bring in the heroin. This leads to the biggest police car chase in filming history. Main Characters:
Gene Hackman as Jimmy Doyle
Roy Scheider as Buddy Russo
Fernanado Rey as Alain Charnier Directed by John G. Avilden A 1976 American Drama and boxing movie about a struggling boxer, working as a debt collector who gets a chance to have a boxing match with a heavy weight champion. He takes this chance so he can be known as a "somebody" if he wins the fight. During his training he meets a girl named Adrian who motivated him to continue his training. Main characters:
Sylvester Stallone as Rocky Balboa.
Talia Shire as Adrian Pennino
Burt Young as Pauline Pennino (Adrian's Brother) Directed by Randol Kleiser A 1978 American Musical about two teenagers who fall in love during the summer break. When school starts again the two teens (Danny and Sandra) find out that they now attend the same high school. They find out that they are two completely different people and things have changed. Later on Sandy and Danny end up changing thier personalities so that they can stay together. Main Characters:
John Travolta as Danny Zuko
Olivia Newton-John as Sandy Olsen Directed by Jim Sharman A 1975 American comedy and musical film about a newly engaged couple Brad and Janet go for a drive and get lost in the rain. They end up having to spend some time at the castle of Dr. Frank-N-Furter a weird Transvestite. Main Characters:
Tim Curry as Dr. Frank-N-Futer
Susan Sacandon as Janet Weiss
Barry bustwick as Brad Major The general processor was a revolutionary device that is used in all computers. It was created by Intel and was named the Intel 4004. The Sony Walkmman was a device that allowed people to listen to cassette tapes. The Walkman was small, light, and came with headphones which made it an unheard of way to listen to music. The first form of voicemail was the Motorola Pageboy. The Pageboy allowed you to leave a simple message and play it back later. Turtlenecks were part of the Royal Navy uniforms (1900s) and was a simple, unisex symbol of formal wear.
Feminists, existentialists, beatniks, and artists adopted this clothing. The three piece suit included the jacket, pants, and a vest worn underneath the jacket.
The backlash against disco music ended the three piece suit fad. Sideburns made a comeback in the 1970's and were seen as either ultra conservative or rbellious.
This became popular for among hippies, the skinhead subculture, and the gay club scenes in Sydney. This hairstyle was the epitome 70's glamour after being debuted on the TV show Charlies Angels. Platform shoes were first introduced the 1970 issue of Seventeen. Celebrities like David Bowie, KISS, and Elton John wore them showing that it was unisex. They were more stable and made of wood and cork with fabric and leather tops. The cult leader Jim Jones died of a gunshot wound to the head She was the first female prime minister Britain has ever had. She was also called the "Iron Lady" for being so stern. men wore polyester bellbottoms with
suit jackets Black turtlenecks were associated with artists, philosophhers, and activists It was long ,feathered back in waves, flatter on top, and had shorter layers around the face. Survivors escaped through
the jungles of Guyana. His plan worked as he became prime minister in 1970. Stevie Wonder was born blind and could play many instruments including the harmonica, piano, and drums. During the 70s he won a total of 15 Grammies. Some of his most popular songs are Superstition, Skeletons, and Isn't she lovely. Some of their popular songs are Hotel California, Life in the fast lane, desperado, witchy women. The band members were Don Henley, Glen Frey, Joe Walsh, Bernie Leadon, and Timothy B. Schmit. The band members were Jimmy Page, Robert Plant, John Bonham, and John Paul Jones. Francisco Franco is seen as a lifelong military figure in Spain. He joined rebel forces after the economy in Spain was crumbling.He led an uprising against the sitting administration and took control of Spain after the Spanish Civil War (1939). From then until his 1975 death, he presided over a military dictatorship. Some of their most popular songs are stairway to heaven, immigrant song, black dog and when the levee breaks. The band members are Mick Jagger, Kieth Richards, Charlie Watts, Brian Jones, Ron Woods and Bill Wyman. Popular songs are Start me up, sympathy for the devil, satisfaction and brown sugar. Coups/Terrorist Attacks Haffez Joined the air force, became a conpirator, and a few officers to help him over throw the governemt. Hafez expanded his control over the military, the network of the security organization. He did this to gain support from the Sunni and non-Sunni Syrians. Idi Amin forcibly took power from president Milton Obote in 1971 Idi Amin led a military coup called Coup d'état to go against president Milton when he was leaving the country for a confrence. The British largly supported his idea because president obote was going to nationalize a UK business Haile Selassie was Emperor of Ethiopia. A terrorist attack by eight Palestinians. The eight Palestinians were part of a group called "Black September" a terrorist organization. They killed two members from the Israeli Olympic team and kidnapped nine others. The Munich Massacre ended by a big gunfight that left all nine Israeli Olympic members and five terrorists dead. The British forces helped bring back Selassie by driving away the Italians who kidnapped him. He was taken into hostage by Italian colonizers There was Famine in Ethiopia in 1973, about 200 000 Ethiopians died. Ethiopia (1974) Selassie was overthrown in 1974 by a group of military officers called the "Derg". He was easily overthrown because of the famine that happen the year before. Band members included Freddie Mercury, Brian May, John Deacon, and Roger Taylor. Queen's most popular songs are we will rock you, another one bites the dust, we are the champions, and bohemian rhapsody. Band members are Roger Waters, David Gilmour, Richard Wright, Nick Mason, Syd Barrett, and Bob Klose. The Civil Rights Movement of the 1960s began to fracture in the 1970s, as social groups began defining themselves more by their differences than by their universalities. The Black Nationalist movement grew out of frustrations with the "non-violent" strategies of earlier Civil Rights Activists. With the assassinations of both Reverend Dr. Martin Luther King, Jr. and Senator Bobby Kennedy, many blacks were compelled to reject ideas of negotiation and instead embrace isolation. The feminist movement also splintered from a larger push for Civil Rights in the 1970s. The opposition to the War in Vietnam that began in the 1960s grew exponentially during the early 1970s. One of the best-known anti-war demonstrations was the Kent State shootings. In 1970 university students were protesting the war and the draft. Riots ensued during the weekend and the National Guard was called in to maintain the peace. However, by 4 May 1970, tensions arose again, and as the crowd grew larger, the National Guard started shooting. Four students were killed and nine injured. This event caused disbelief and shock throughout the country and became a staple of anti-Vietnam demonstrations. The band members were Pete Townshend, Roger Daltrey, Keith Moon, and John Entwistle. Their most popular songs are my generation, pinball wizard,and who are you. Don McLean's most famous song American Pie about the 1959 plane crash coined the term, the day the music died. His other famous songs are vincent and crying. Leisure suits were created by Jerry Rosengarten in 1975 as business attire. It was a slim cut, wide lapelled ,polyfibered pants and jacket set. After the death of Pope VI, who ruled for 15 years, the College of Cardinals had to elect another Pope. They chose Pope John Paul I. Pope John Paul I died thirty-three days later on September 28, 1978.After his death they elected Pope John Paul II who was Pope until his death in 2005. Mao Zedong was known as the founding father of the People’s Republic of China from 1949. Until his death he governed China and was called” The Chairman of the Communist Party of China”. Some people consider him to be a dictator because the laws he created were responsible for 40-70 million deaths caused by starvation or execution. Members of Organization of Arab Petroleum Exporting Countries (OAPEC, consisting of the Arab members of OPEC plus Egypt and Syria) announced, as a result of the ongoing Yom Kippur War, that they would no longer ship petroleum to nations that had supported Israel in its conflict with Syria and Egypt (the United States, its allies in Western Europe, and Japan). After forging a peace accord in 1978 it was made official on March 26, 1979 in the U.S between Israel and Egypt. Israel agreed to return Sinai to Egypt and to negotiate Palestinian autonomy measures in Gaza Strip and West Bank. From the knee downwards
bellbottoms were wider and
were part of the hippie movement. It began in the United States, Austrailia, and the United Kingdom. Philosophical, artistic, and political movemets influenced the subculture. Space Exploration Launched: 31 January 1971 UT 21:03:02 (4:03:02 p.m. EST)
Landed on Moon: 5 February 1971 UT 09:18:11 (04:18:11 a.m. EST)
Landing Site: Fra Mauro (3.65 S, 17.47 W)
Returned to Earth: 9 February 1971 UT 21:05:00 (04:05:00 p.m. EST) CREW:
Alan B. Shepard, Jr., commander
Stuart A. Roosa, command module pilot Edgar D. Mitchell, lunar module pilot Apollo 14 was the third mission in which humans walked on the lunar surface and returned to Earth. On 5 February 1971 two astronauts (Apollo 14 Commander Alan B. Shepard, Jr. and LM pilot Edgar D. Mitchell) landed near Fra Mauro crater on the Moon in the Lunar Module (LM) while the Command and Service Module (CSM) (with CM pilot Stuart A. Roosa) continued in lunar orbit. During their stay on the Moon, the astronauts set up scientific experiments, took photographs, and collected lunar samples. The LM took off from the Moon on 6 February and the astronauts returned to Earth on 9 February. The LM, with Shepard and Mitchell aboard, separated from the CSM, piloted by Roosa, at 04:50:44 UT on 5 February and landed at 09:18:11 UT in the hilly upland region 24 km north of the rim of Fra Mauro crater at 3.6 S, 17.5 W. The astronauts made two moonwalk EVA's totaling 9 hours, 23 minutes, one on 5 February and one on 6 February, during which the Apollo lunar surface experiments package (ALSEP) was placed on the surface of the moon, 42.9 kg of lunar samples were acquired, and photographs were taken. At the end of the second EVA Shepard hit two golf balls. Experiments were also performed from the CSM in equatorial orbit. The LM lifted off from the Moon at 18:48:42 UT on 6 February after 33 hours, 31 minutes on the lunar surface. It impacted the Moon on 8 February 00:45:25.7 UT at 3.42 S, 19.67 W. Apollo 14 splashed down in the Pacific Ocean on 9 February 1971 at 21:05:00 UT (4:05:00 p.m. EST) after a mission elapsed time of 216 hrs, 1 min, 58 secs. The splashdown point was 27 deg 1 min S, 172 deg 39 min W, 765 nautical miles south of American Samoa. The astronauts and capsule were picked up by the recovery ship USS New Orleans. This was the last Apollo mission in which the astronauts were put in quaratine after their return. Performance of the spacecraft, the third of the Apollo H-series missions, was good for most aspects of the mission. The primary mission goals of deployment of the ALSEP and other scientific experiments, collection of lunar samples, surface photography, and photography, radio science and other scientific experiments from orbit were achieved with the exception of the full coverage planned for the Hycon camera. Shepard, 47, was a Navy captain on his second spaceflight (he'd flown previously as the first American in space on Mercury Redstone 3), Roosa, 37, was an Air Force major on his first spaceflight, and Mitchell, 40, was a Navy commander also on his first spaceflight. The backup crew for this mission was Eugene Cernan, Ronald Evans, and Joe Engle. The Apollo 14 command module "Kitty Hawk" is currently on display at the Astronaut Hall of Fame in Titusville, Florida. This diagram shows the wings and the five major assemblies of Skylab: workshop, airlock, docking adapter, solar observatory, and command and service module. The Apollo command and service module was the logistics vehicle, docking at the forward end of the docking adapter, which housed many of the experiments and provided a docking port. The airlock connected the docking adapter and the workshop; the latter provided the living and working quarters for the crew. The solar observatory was mounted on a structure above the docking adapter. This mission sequence shows graphically how Skylab would be launched and deployed in space. A view of the Skylab Orbital Workshop in Earth orbit as photographed from Skylab 4 on its return home.
Image credit: NASA Mission Objective:
Apollo 13 was supposed to land in the Fra Mauro area. An explosion on board forced Apollo 13 to circle the moon without landing. The Fra Mauro site was reassigned to Apollo 14.
Launched: 11 April 1970 UT 19:13:00 (02:13:00 p.m. EST) Malfunction forced cancellation of lunar landing
Returned to Earth: 17 April 1970 UT 18:07:41 (01:07:41 p.m. EST)
James A. Lovell, commander
John L. Swigert, Jr., command module pilot
Fred W. Haise, Jr., lunar module pilot Apollo 13 was intended to be the third mission to carry humans to the surface of the Moon, but an explosion of one of the oxygen tanks and resulting damage to other systems resulted in the mission being aborted before the planned lunar landing could take place. The crew, commander James A. Lovell, Jr., command module pilot John L. Swigert, Jr., and lunar module pilot Fred W. Haise Jr., were returned safely to Earth on 17 April 1970. A television broadcast was made from Apollo 13 from 02:24 UT to 02:59 UT on 14 April and a few minutes later, at 03:06:18 UT Jack Swigert turned the fans on to stir oxygen tanks 1 and 2 in the service module. The Accident Review Board concluded that wires which had been damaged during pre-flight testing in oxygen tank no. 2 shorted and the teflon insulation caught fire. The fire spread within the tank, raising the pressure until at 3:07:53 UT on 14 April (10:07:53 EST 13 April; 55:54:53 mission elapsed time) oxygen tank no. 2 exploded, damaging oxygen tank no. 1 and the interior of the service module and blowing off the bay no. 4 cover. With the oxygen stores depleted, the command module was unusable, the mission had to be aborted, and the crew transferred to the lunar module and powered down the command module. At 08:43 UT a mid-course maneuver (11.6 m/s delta V) was performed using the lunar module descent propulsion system (LMDPS) to place the spacecraft on a free-return trajectory which would take it around the Moon and return to Earth, targeted at the Indian Ocean at 03:13 UT 18 April. After rounding the Moon another LMDPS burn at 02:40:39 UT 15 April for 263.4 seconds produced a differential velocity of 262 m/s and shortened the estimated return time to 18:06 UT 17 April with splashdown in the mid-Pacific. The spacecraft was the second of the Apollo H-series. The purposes of the mission were (1) to explore the hilly upland Fra Mauro region of the moon, (2) to perform selenological inspection, survey, and sampling of material in the Fra Mauro formation, (3) to deploy and activate an Apollo lunar surface experiments package (ALSEP), (4) to further develop man's capability to work in the lunar environment, and (5) to obtain photographs of candidate lunar exploration sites. These goals were to be carried out from a near-circular lunar orbit and on the lunar surface at 3 deg S latitude, 17 deg W longitude. Although the planned mission objectives were not realized, a limited amount of photographic data was obtained. Lovell was a Navy captain on his fourth spaceflight (he'd flown previously on Gemini 7, Gemini 12, and Apollo 8), Haise and Swigert were both civilians on their first spaceflights. The backup crew was John Young, Charles Duke, and John Swigert (who replaced Thomas Mattingly on the prime crew after the crew was exposed to German measles). The Apollo 13 Command Module "Odyssey" is now at the Kansas Cosmosphere and Space Center, Hutchinson, Kansas. It was originally on display at the Musee de l'Air, Paris, France. Soyuz 11 was the second mission to Salyut 1, the first civilian space station. The first mission, Soyuz 10, was aborted because the crew could not enter the space station. The cosmonauts Viktor Patsayev, Georgi Dobrovolsky, and Vladislav Volkov were the crew of Soyuz 11. Originally, they were the Soyuz 11 backup crew, but when Valery Kubasov from the original crew became ill, the crews were changed. Soyuz 11 was launched on the 6th of June, 1971, and docked Salyut 1 the following day. This mission mark the first time a space station was manned. Crew of Soyuz 11 (left to right): V. I. Patsayev, G. T. Dobrovolskiy, and V. N. Volkov train for their mission (Tass from Sovfoto). The joined configuration of Soyuz and Salyut was 21.4 meters long with a total living space of 100 cubic meters, which gave the cosmonauts a place to conduct scientific experiments, relax, and sleep. For the next 23 days, each crewmember performed his scheduled experiments, which emphasized the study of human performance under, and reaction to, prolonged weightlessness. Research in the areas of astronomy, biology, and Earth observation were also done. This record-breaking 24-day space mission was heralded as the beginning a new era in space exploration On June 29, 1971 the three cosmonauts boarded the Soyuz 11 command module, for their return flight home to earth after completing their flight plan successfully. They had previously transferred their scientific records, film, and log books to Soyuz in preparation for their return home. Everything went as planned, until the craft began to enter the Earth's atmosphere. A failure in the firing of the pyrotechnic devices that separate the Soyuz orbital module from the return module caused a pressure equalization valve to remain open and thus allowed the atmosphere in the return module to leak out. The cabin began to lose pressure, and oxygen. Viktor, one of the cosmonauts, knew that in order to restore pressure, he had to close the pressure equalization valve. He began turning the handle connected to the valve as fast as he could, but unfortunately, it was not fast enough. He was only able to get the valve half closed, when he died from lack of oxygen. The spacecraft landed successfully, but the recovery teams found all three cosmonauts dead. As a result of this accident, all subsequent Soyuz crews have worn pressure suits during launch, re-entry, and docking activities. The Soviet Union did not return any crews to Salyut 1 and it was more than two years before they attempted another manned mission. The accident was a stunning blow to both the Soviet Union and the international aerospace community. The experimental and risky nature of man's venture into space had been made clear. The Soweto riots of 1976 were the most brutal and violent riots that had taken place against the South African apartheid administration. It was also amazing in how far and how fast it spread. Its significance would go beyond the violence on the streets. The police actions during the riots would be part of what instigated a world-wide boycott of South African produce and signalled the increased militancy of the black population of South Africa. During a reorganisation of the Bantu Education Department of the government, the South African apartheid government decided to start enforcing a long-forgotten law requiring that secondary education be conducted only in Afrikaans, rather than in English or any of the native African languages. This was bitterly resented by both teachers and students. Many teachers themselves did not speak Afrikaans (an extremely difficult language to learn) and so could not teach the students. The students resented being forced to learn the language of their oppressors and saw it as a direct attempt to cut them off from their original culture. By 1976, several teachers were ignoring the directive and were fired, prompting staff resignations. Tensions grew. Students refused to write papers in Afrikaans and were expelled. The students of one school after another went on strike. The government response was to simply shut the down schools and expel the striking students. Khmer Rouge seized power in 1975, and in 1976 Khmer Rouge established a new constitution with the new flag under offical name, Democratic Kampuchea. As one of the most violent regimes of the 20th century, the Khmer Rouge regime was responsible for the deaths of approximately 1.7 million people by execution, starvation and forced labor. Powered by the Vietnamese, the Cambodian communist movement was created to fight against French colonization during decade of 1940s.In 1960, twenty one politicians formed Kampuchean (or Khmer) People's Revolutionary Party (KPRP). The Khmer Rouge, organized by Pol Pot in the Cambodian jungle in the 1960s, advocated a radical Communist revolution that would wipe out Western influences in Cambodia and set up a solely agrarian society. In 1970, aided by North Vietnamese and Viet Cong troops, Khmer Rouge guerrillas began a large-scale insurgency against Cambodian government forces, soon gaining control of nearly a third of the country. By 1973, secret U.S. bombings of Cambodian territory controlled by the Vietnamese Communists forced the Vietnamese out of the country, creating a power vacuum that was soon filled by Pol Pot's rapidly growing Khmer Rouge movement. In April 1975, the Khmer Rouge captured Phnom Penh, the Cambodian capital, overthrew the pro-U.S. regime, and established a new government, the Kampuchean People's Republic. As the new ruler of Cambodia, Pol Pot set about transforming the country into his vision of an agrarian utopia. The cities were evacuated, factories and schools were closed, and currency and private property was abolished. Anyone believed to be an intellectual, such as someone who spoke a foreign language, was immediately killed. Skilled workers were also killed, in addition to anyone caught in possession of eyeglasses, a wristwatch, or any other modern technology. In forced marches punctuated with atrocities from the Khmer Rouge, the millions who failed to escape Cambodia were herded onto rural collective farms. Between 1975 and 1978, an estimated two million Cambodians died by execution, forced labor, and famine. In 1978, Vietnamese troops invaded Cambodia, capturing Phnom Penh in early 1979. A moderate Communist government was established, and Pol Pot and the Khmer Rouge retreated back into the jungle. In 1985, Pol Pot officially retired but remained the effective head of the Khmer Rouge, which continued its guerrilla actions against the government in Phnom Penh. In 1997, however, he was put on trial by the organization after an internal power struggle ousted him from his leadership position. Sentenced to life imprisonment by a "people's tribunal," which critics derided as a show trial, Pol Pot later declared in an interview, "My conscience is clear." Much of the international community hoped that his captors would extradite him to stand trial for his crimes against humanity, but he died of apparently natural causes while under house arrest in 1998. Nature of Struggle: revolution against dictatorship
Target: regime of Mohammed Reza Shah Pahlavi
Movement: urban poor, students, trade unions, intellectuals, leftists, Islamists, and others, led by Shi’a clerics The Iranian Revolution of 1977-79 was the first in a series of mass popular civil insurrections which would result in the overthrow of authoritarian regimes in dozens of countries over the next three decades. Unlike most of the other uprisings that would topple dictators in Latin America, Eastern Europe, and parts of Asia and Africa, the result of the Iranian struggle was not the establishment of liberal democracy but of a new form of authoritarianism. However, except for a series of short battles using light weaponry in the final hours of the uprising, the revolutionary forces themselves were overwhelmingly nonviolent. The autocratic monarchy of Mohammed Reza Shah Pahlavi faced a broad coalition of opposition forces, including Marxists and constitutional liberals, but the opposition ultimately became dominated by the mullahs of the country’s Shia hierarchy. Despite severe repression against protestors, a series of demonstrations and strikes over the previous two years came to a peak in the fall of 1978, as millions of opponents of the Shah’s regime clogged the streets of Iran’s cities and work stoppages paralyzed the country. The Shah fled into exile in January 1979 and exiled cleric Ayatollah Ruhollah Khomeini returned from exile to lead the new Islamic Republic. Anger against the U.S. reached a fever pitch when the Shah, suffering from cancer, came to America for treatment in October 1979.On November 4, thousands of young Iranians, many of them college students, swarmed the U.S. embassy's 27-acre compound in Tehran, seizing the 66 Americans inside. "They seemed to be kids about 20 years old . . . kids from small towns with rather strict upbringings," one hostage, John Limbert, recalled. "Many of them had never seen an American before."The 14-month standoff that followed humbled President Carter, led to the deaths of eight American servicemen in a botched rescue operation, and created a measure of distrust and anger that has never dissipated.In the U.S., vigils were held and yellow ribbons were worn to signify concern for the hostages. Americans grew increasingly frustrated as the crisis dragged on—a sentiment that helped Ronald Reagan in his successful 1980 presidential campaign against Carter.The Shah died in July 1980, but the hostages, held for 444 days, were not released until the moment Reagan took the oath of office, on Jan. 20, 1981.Khomeini's death in 1989 did nothing to ease the enmity between Iran and the U.S., at least on an official level. As Iranians—particularly the Westward-looking middle class—grew more frustrated with the oppressiveness of the revolution, they began to view America more favorably. Today, Iran may be the only Mideast nation with a government—now led by Ayatollah Ali Khamenei (hah-mehn-a-EE) and President Mahmoud Ahmadinejad (ah-ma-DIH-nee-jahd)—that is more anti-American than its people. In 1971 Yugoslavia found itself in the middle of a serious political crisis resulting from years of Yugoslav communist leadership pursuing economic and political reforms. The ultimate goal of such reforms was to create a specific form of socialist economy that was based on self-management, and to consequently solve the ever-present
national question. Unexpectedly, the reforms and the loosening of the central Party control only helped to bring to light economic and national problems, and thus creating a situation of constant friction between confronted political forces in the country. The epicentre of the crisis was Croatia, where the consequences of political liberalization manifested themselves in the rise of nationalism and in demands for higher political and economic autonomy from the political centre of Federation in Belgrade. The crisis in Croatia attracted a lot of attention both on the West and the East, because the Cold War blocs feared eventual repercussions for internal stability that could lead to the dissolution of the country, which would consequently disturb the status quo and produce a global conflict over the geo-strategic control of this part of Europe.