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Mayer on Multimedia Learning
Transcript of Mayer on Multimedia Learning
we cannot separate media effects from the instructional method "Adding a visual explanation to a verbal one can greatly enhance student understanding." "In six distinct comparisons, students who received coordinated presentation of animation and narration generated a median of 53% more correct creative solutions than did students who received the materials presented successively." 97% 65% For whom is multimedia instruction effective? NOVICES "well-designed multimedia representations are most helpful for learners who lack prior knowledge and who possess high spatial ability." Is narration more effective than text? Split-Attention Effect Probably. Conclusion Generative Theory of Multimedia Learning Criteria for Study Scientific Explanation Mayer's studies focused on teaching scientific explanations, such as how a bicycle pump or a braking systems works. Learner Knowledge Test Mayer tested learner knowledge by using the transfer test.
Problem-solving transfer: can learners come up with creative solutions to different problems? "3D Person Getting It Right" by David Castillo Dominici from freedigitalphotos.net Question of one medium over another is unproductive Progress in research depends on searching for the right kinds of questions A cognitive theory analysis of verbal and visual knowledge construction yielded several productive questions, which concluded in support for the generative theory of multimedia learning Multimedia Effects
Split-Attention Effects Learner receives instruction VISUAL VERBAL Learner SELECTS relevant pieces of knowledge Learner ORGANIZES visual and verbal mental models in working memory Learner INTEGRATES models by connecting with knowledge structures already in memory Learner develops CREATIVE SOLUTIONS In a pilot study, the animation-narration group produced 50% more creative solutions than the animation-text group. MORE STUDY IS NEEDED. "Man Looking Through Binoculars" by David Castillo Dominici from freedigitalphotos.net "Call Center Operator showing card" by David Castillo Dominici from freedigitalphotos.net Overload Images courtesy of
FreeDigitalPhotos.net Educational Psychologist, 32:1,1-19
1997 Mayer did not test knowledge by testing recall. ANIMATION + NARRATION More creative problem solving solutions Images + Text more creative solutions When text is presented simultaneously with the related image. Learners with little or no prior knowledge of the subject gained more ground in developing creative solutions than those who had a better understanding prior to instruction. When text and animation are both presented visually the learner's visual attention must be split and information may be lost. When text is presented audibly and the corresponding animation is presented visually, learning is more effective. Acoustic Working Memory &
Visual Working Memory = Split-Attention Effect Multimedia Effect Media Effect People with High Learners with low spatial ability have to devote more cognitive resources to developing mental images. Learners with high prior knowledge are able to generate mental images with only verbal instruction, so the visual plus verbal model is less effective.