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In-Vitro Meat: Key Innovation or Perversion?

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Helena Lindemann

on 4 June 2014

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Transcript of In-Vitro Meat: Key Innovation or Perversion?

In-vitro meat
To create edible meat through stem cell cultivation
-> Test tube or petri dish
-> Outside of a living organism

Topics
Synthetic foods
Cultivation process
Current state of research -> Projects and investors
Impact
Necessity?
Current state of research?
What impact could in-vitro meat make?
The first in-vitro beef burger patty
In-Vitro Meat: Key Innovation or Perversion?

- Produced by advanced technological methods
- Goal: Mimicry of natural products

3D Printing
Used to print leather and meat
NASA "Space food"
Food Imitation
Mimic the natural products, however do not include the natural ingredients
Examples include:
Cheese
Ham
Crab meat

Vegan Analogue Products
Also mimic the natural product, but are not sold as "the real thing"
Synthetic food production
"food chemistry"
Survey: Would you eat in-vitro meat?
Usually frozen, refrigerated, or ambient foods
How is in-vitro meat made?
Step 1:
Extract muscle cells from animal via biopsy

Step 2:
Isolate Myosatellite Cells*
* Responsible for muscle regeneration
Step 3:
Add growth medium supplemented with fetal calf serum

Step 4:
Provide „Anchor points“ for the cells
Step 5:
Scaffolding - promoted muscle growth through stimulation (e.g. electricity)
Outlook: the potential future of in-vitro meat
Prof. Dr. Mark Post at UvM:
3D cultivation in a bioreactor
Cultivate more complex meat structures (e.g. T-Bone Steak)
Sell stem cells via internet and home cultivation
5. PK Abitur Presentation by Helena Lindemann


Subjects: Chemistry and Biology
Teachers: Kerstin Nadolph and William Laverty

Key Innovation?

Arguments that speak for in-vitro meat
Animal Welfare
Tons of meat could be produced through a single biopsy
Health Benefits
Ingredients traceable
- No Antibiotics, Hormones, Steroids
- Healthy ingredients like Omega 3 fatty acids
Disease prevention (swine flu, cardiovascular diseases)
Environment
Reduction in greenhouse gases
Reduction in land needed
-> Less related issues

The situation now...
99% less land required
96% less water consumed
96% fewer greenhouse gases emitted
45% less energy needed
source: http://modernmeadow.com/about/opportunity/
Perversion?
Arguments that speak against in-vitro meat
Unnatural
"Yuck factor"
"Frankenstein-ish"
Animals still suffer
Fetal calf serum is used as a growth and proliferation medium
Non-Kosher
Non-Vegetarian / Non-Vegan
Can meat as an important cultural element really be replaced?
How far will we go...?
Conclusion
...Key innovation
or perversion?

No more animal cruelty
Economic: Reformation of the entire meat industry
Environment
Neccessity?
Interview with Prof.Dr. von Witzke; Professor for Agricultural Economy at the Humboldt University in Berlin
- Worldwide food security is an important topic
- Malnutrition is problem found primarily in developing countries
- Compare to: using more efficient farming technologies
10,000,000,000 farm animals die every year in the U.S. alone for meat, dairy and egg production
source: http://dictionary.reference.com/browse/in+vitro
Long-term food security
One stem cell could produce 10 000 kg of meat
Resources could not run out
In-vitro meat burger = not a 'real' product, more a proof of concept
Prof. of Vascular Physiology and Tissue Engineering Mark Post (UvM) and team
Tasting and press demonstration August 2013

A clash of opinions
Source quote 1: http://aphilosophersblog.wordpress.com/2013/08/13/6-reasons-why-you-should-not-support-in-vitro-meat/
Source quote 2: http://www.theguardian.com/commentisfree/2012/jan/22/cultured-meat-environment-diet-nutrition
%
Answer
Sources: Literature
Sources: Internet

• Boye, Joyce I. and Arcand, Yves: Green Technologies in Food Production and Processing. New York: Springer, 2012
• Northrop, Robert B. and Connor, Anne N.: Ecological Sustainability: Understanding complex issues. Boca Raton: CRC Press, Taylor & Francis Group, 2013
• Gutiérrez-López, Gustavo F., Barbosa-Cánovas, Gustavo V., Welti-Chanes, Jorge and Efrén Parada-Arias: Food Engineering: Integrated Approaches. New York: Springer, 2008
• Preece, Rod: Sins of the flesh: a history of ethical vegetarian thought. Vancouver: UBC Press, 2008
• Sunstein, Cass R., Nussbaum, Martha C.: Animal Rights: current debates and new directions. Oxford: Oxford University Press, 2004
• Walters, Reece: Eco crime and genetically modified food. Abingdon: Routledge, 2011
• Carolan, Michael: The Sociology of Food and Agriculture. London: Routledge, 2012
• Safran Foer, Jonathan: Eating Animals. London: Hamish Hamilton, 2010
• 3 Precht, Richard D: Wer bin ich - Und wenn ja wie viele? München: Wilhelm Goldmann Verlag, 2007
• Logue, Alexandra W.: The Psychology of eating and drinking. New York: Brunner-Routledge, 2004
• Rosin, Christopher, Stock, Paul and Campbell, Hugh: Food Systems Failure - The Global food crisis and the future of agriculture. London: Earthscan, 2012
• Lanza, Robert P.: Handbook of stem cells/ Vol. 1 / Pluripotent stem cells. Amsterdam: Elsevier, AP 2013
• Dutta, Rajiv: Fundamentals of Biochemical Engineering. Berlin, Heidelberg: Springer Berlin Heidelberg, 2008

In-vitro meat vs. conventional meat
Scientific Progress
http://www.theguardian.com/science/2012/jun/22/fake-meat-scientific-breakthroughs-research (23.04.14; 20:00)
http://blog.ted.com/2013/09/19/would-you-eat-3d-printed-meat-7-vegetarians-and-vegans-reflect/ (23.04.14; 20:22)
http://www.cracked.com/article/113_6-fake-foods-you-will-wish-you-didnt-have-in-your-kitchen/ (11.05.14; 20:50)
http://modernmeadow.com/fact-sheet/ (11.05.14; 21:00)
http://www.nasa-usa.de/audience/formedia/presskits/spacefood/factsheets.html (12.05.14; 11:02)
http://www.nextnature.net/2013/08/designer-visions-on-cultured-meat/ (12.05.14; 11:26)
http://encyclopedia2.thefreedictionary.com/Synthetic+and+Artificial+Food+Products (16.05.14; 09:03)
http://www.sputnik.de/tagesupdate/kaefig-statt-wiese (11.05.14; 21:10)
http://www.peta.org/issues/animals-used-for-food/factory-farming/cows/beef-industry/ (13.05.14; 16:47)
http://www.futurefood.org/in-vitro-meat/index_en.php (13.05.14; 17:22)
http://www.tiki-toki.com/timeline/entry/147753/A-History-of-Cultured-Meat/#vars!panel=1443625! (13.05.14; 18:58)
http://culturedbeef.net/# (20.05.14; 19:02)
http://www.peta.org/blog/vitro-meat-prize-deadline-extended/(20.05.14; 20:19)
http://www.peta.org/issues/animals-used-for-food/factory-farming/pigs/pork-industry/ (20.05.14; 19:04)
Sources: Internet
PDF Files
http://www.maastrichtuniversity.nl/web/file?uuid=4639a911-614f-446e-ab5e-a0f5e682fb2e&owner=4ca0966f-90c7-435f-af33-64b59f8eb1fe (13.04.14; 18:46)
http://new-harvest.org/wp-content/uploads/2013/03/production_of_animal_proteins_1207.pdf (13.04.14; 19:02)
http://new-harvest.org/wp-content/uploads/2013/03/post_2012_cultured_meat_from_stem_cells_challenges_and_prospects.pdf (15.04.14; 11:05)
http://www.futuremedicine.com/doi/pdf/10.2217/rme.13.80 (15.04.14; 11:07)
http://www.jfs.tku.edu.tw/14-4/A05.pdf (15.04.14; 11:10)
http://www.whyculturedmeat.org/wordpress/wp-content/uploads/2014/03/tuomisto_teixiera_de_mattos_cultured_meat_lca_es_t_published.pdf (21.04.14; 14:28)
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3551074/ (21.04.14; 14:40)
http://link.springer.com/article/10.1007%2Fs10806-010-9261-7 (21.04.14; 18:12)
Articles and commentaries
http://verdict.justia.com/2013/10/02/whats-wrong-with-in-vitro-meat (13.04.14; 19:07)
http://blog.ted.com/2013/06/13/how-to-print-meat-and-leather-andras-forgacs-at-tedglobal-2013/ (23.04.14; 20:42)
http://blog.modernoats.com/lab-grown-beef-burgers/ (21.04.14; 14:03)
http://news.sciencemag.org/2013/08/here-it-comes-%E2%80%A6-375000-lab-grown-beef-burger (13.04.14; 18:38)
http://rationalwiki.org/wiki/Food_crisis (15.04.14; 11:30)
Sources: Pictures
http://www.wired.com/images_blogs/design/2012/04/envisiontec-3d-bioprinter-living-tissue-3d-printer-wired-design.jpg (23.05.14; 09:21)
http://epicureanvegan.com/2010/05/24/product-review-dr-cow-vegan-cheese/(22.05.14; 13:45)
http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Misstrauisches_braunes_Kalb.JPG (22.05.14; 18:14)
http://nobacon.wordpress.com/tag/vegetarian-blts/ (13.05.14; 12:00)
http://www.voedingswaardetabel.nl/voedingswaarde/voedingsmiddel/?id=881 (13.05.14; 12:05)
http://www.mnn.com/sites/default/files/NASASpaceFood_m_0906.jpg (21.05.14; 18:49)
http://www.lifelearn-cliented.com/cms/resources/body/6172/skin_biopsy_3_2009.jpg (12.05.14; 13:09)
http://www.sigmaaldrich.com/content/dam/sigma-aldrich/product3/060/f2442_serum.tif/_jcr_content/renditions/medium.jpg (11.05.14; 20:03)
http://www.maastrichtuniversity.nl/web/file?uuid=4639a911-614f-446e-ab5e-a0f5e682fb2e&owner=4ca0966f-90c7-435f-af33-64b59f8eb1fe (13.04.14; 18:46)
Full transcript