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Transcript of Cellular Respiration
By: Yasmin Leon, Markayla Lockett, and Stacey Maldonado
What is Cellular Respiration ?
Cellular respiration is the process that releases energy by breaking down glucose and other food molecules in the presence of oxygen.
Cellular Respiration is broken down into three parts; Glycolysis, Kreb's Cycle, and the Electron Transport chain.
The equation for this process is:
Step 2: Krebs Cycle
The Krebs cycle was discovered by the British biochemist Hans Krebs in 1937.
What happens during this stage?
During the Krebs cycle pyruvic acid is broken down into carbon dioxide in a series of energy-extracting reactions.
These reactions are
A. Production of Citric Acid
B. Energy Extraction
Step 3: Electron Transport Chain
Glycolysis is the first set of reactions in cell respiration.
It is the process in which one molecule of glucose is broken in half, producing two molecules of pyruvic acid; which makes a three carbon compound.
The process starts as followed....
The electron transport chain uses the high-energy electrons from the Krebs Cycle to convert ADP into ATP.
High-energy electrons are first passed along the electron transport chain from NADH and FADH2.
There, the energy is used to transport hydrogen ions ( H+) across the membrane.
Finally, ATP is produced.
The Action Begins with...
A. Citric Acid Production
Cellular respiration is the process of releasing energy from the break down of glucose and other food molecules present in oxygen.
There are three main processes in cellular respiration: Glycolsis, Kreb's Cycle, and finally Electron Transport Chain.
A Quick Review...
1) The pyruvic acid produced by glycolysis enters the Mitochondria.
2) One carbon atom from pyruvic acid becomes part of a molecule of carbon dioxide, which is eventually released into the air.
3)The other two carbon atoms from pyruvic acid are joined to a compound called coenzyme A to form acetyl-CoA
4) This substance formed then adds the 2-carbon acetyl group to a 4-carbon molecule, producing a 6-carbon molecule called citric acid.
The action continues with..
B. Energy Extraction
1) Citric acid is broken down into a 4-carbon molecule
2) Two molecules of carbon dioxide are released
3) Electrons join NAD+ and FAD forming NADH and FADH2
4) One molecule of ATP is formulated
5) This process gives as energy totals of:
a. Four NADH: with oxygen can generate huge amounts of ATP
b. One FADH2: a molecule similar to NADH
c. One molecule ATP: used in cellular activities
The process starts with glucose in the cytoplasm.
To begin, 2 ATP molecules come along which are energy for the cell and they give 2 phosphate
molecules to glucose
Next, the glucose is broken in half by the phosphate which produces two energized carbon compounds and the ATP turn into ADP
After this, NAD+ connects with Hydrogen to create NADH.
Soon, we see that ADP and NADH have been formed. These two molecules are used to de-energize the glucose and create pyruvic acid
When the ADP connects with one of the carbon compounds, it then turns into ATP and the NADH stays the same when it touches a compound
Finally, the carbon compound has lost it's energy and becomes pyruvic acid; the acid it was intended to be. We then see that after finishing the process, we are left with 4 ATP's and 2 NADH's which 2 OF the ATP's and both of the NADH's were created in this process
The Glycolysis Cycle