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Speech Mechanism and Voice Production
Transcript of Speech Mechanism and Voice Production
- primarily concerned with maintaining life
- first stage in sound production
- the exchange of oxygen and carbon dioxide between the atmosphere and the body cells
1. Breathing/ Respiration
taking in of fresh air
-serves as the reservior of air
- as you inhale, fill the lungs comfortably in preparation for speaking
- a large sheet of muscle separating the chest cavity from the abdomen
- form the floor of the chest and the roof of the abdomen
- gives pressure to the breath stream
- also known as windpipe
- passage way of air going up from lungs
- process by which the vocal folds produce certain sounds through quasi-periodic vibration
- production of sounds by the vocal cords
- the hollow muscular organ forming an air passage to the lungs and holding the vocal cords in humans and other mammals
- folds of membranous tissue that project inward from the sides of the larynx to form a slit across the glottis in the throat, and whose edges vibrate in the airstream to produce the voice.
- the voice box
- protuberance is known as "Adam;s Apple"
- production of sounds by the vocal cords
3. REsonation Stage
- common passageway for air and food
- internal nose
- located behind the nose and mouth and includes the cavity at the back of the tongue
- division of pharynx: nasal, oral, and laryngeal pharynx
- produces weak voice, becomes strong and weak when amplified and modified by human resonator
- process of voice amplification and modification
- directly behind the external nose through which the air passes on its way to the pharynx
- it is the result of the movement of the articulators towards the points of the articulation
3. Articulation Stage
- occurs when the tone produced in larynx is changed into specific sound
- small nub on the lower border of the soft palate
- movable tip at the mid line of the free border of the soft palate
- separates the nasal and pharynx from the oral cavity
soft and hard palate
- cave-like extension of the hard palate
- the ceiling of the mouth
- is used to pronounce letter "s"
- together with tongue, they articulate the soft and hard palate,
- highly flexible
- enunciate the bilabial sounds p, b, w, hw, and cooperate with the teeth in the f and v sound
- the tongue shapes out the vowels and helps consonant
The Speech Mechanism
- when we speak, air comes out through the lungs and it is interfered at various places for the production of sounds. Sounds cannot occur without air.
- human voice frequency ranges from 200 to 700 Hz
- the organs that take part in the production of speech sounds are called
The following diagram shows the main organs of speech
The larynx contains two small bands of elastic tissues. They are called vocal cords. The opening between the vocal cords is called epiglottis. When we breath in or out, the glottis is open. This is the position of the production of voiceless sounds. e.g. /f/, /s/, /h/, etc are voiceless sounds in English. The sounds produced when the glottis comes together are called voiced sounds.
So the main function of the vocal cords is to produce voiced and voiceless sounds.
Important Organs of Speech
The soft palate is also called velum. It is the roof of the mouth. It separates the oral and nasal cavity. The last part of the soft palate is called uvula. When it is lowered, the nasal sounds (/m, n, ŋ/) are produced. When it is raised, the air passes out through the oral cavity and the oral sounds (/p, t, k, s, etc/) are produced.
The tongue is an important organ of speech. It has the greatest variety of movement. It is divided into four parts: the tip, the blade, the front and the back. The number of vowels is produced with the help of the tongue. Vowels differ from each other because of the position of the tongue.
The tip of the tongue helps to produce /t, d, z, etc/. The blade of the tongue helps to produce /t∫, dÎ, ∫, etc/. The front of the tongue helps to produce palatal sound /j/ and the back of the tongue helps to produce /k, g/ sounds
The teeth take part in the production of consonant sounds. The upper teeth only take part in the production of speech sounds. The lower teeth don't take part for the production of sounds. The sound produced with the help of the upper teeth are called dental sound (q, r)
The alveolar ridge is the part between the upper teeth and the hard palate. The sound produced with the tongue touching the alveolar ridge is called alveolar sounds, e.g. /s/, /t/, /d/, etc.
Producing different speech sounds depends on the movement of speech organs. It is essential to know the movement and the placement of each organ to produce particular sounds.
4 stages of voice production