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Leadership and the

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on 3 April 2017

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Transcript of Leadership and the

Final Exam Review
Week 2
Week 3
Week 4

Important Leadership and Interpersonal Skills
5 Qualities of Leadership Competency
Leaders vs. Managers
7 Traits of Effective Project Managers

Leadership and the
Human Element in
Project management

Important Leadership and Interpersonal Skills:
Week 1
5 Qualities of Leadership Competency
1. Tolerant
2. Creative Problem Solving
3. Flexible
4. Effective Communicator
5. Credible
Leaders Vs. Managers
Management is doing things right;
Leadership is doing the right things.
- Peter F Drucker
7 Traits of Effective Project Managers
1. Problem Solving Skills
2. Results Oriented
3. Self Confident
4. Perspective
5. Communication
6. Negotiation
7. Energy & Initiative
Week 5
Week 6
Week 7
Week 10
week 11
Challenges to Leading Projects
3 Elements of Mindfulness
Leadership Assessments
Why understanding leadership styles is important
Challenges of Leading Projects
1. Triple Constraints
2. Barriers to Successful Communication
3. Organizational Culture
Good leadership leads to better performance of employees
- Improves customer satisfaction
- Yields higher revenues

A deeper sense of awareness, which explores one’s own thoughts and feelings, as well as awareness of the environment and other people.
3 Elements of Mindfulness
1. Intention
2. Attention
3. Attitude
Make the decision to have a positive attitude and be optimistic –
Keep Calm
Leadership Assessments
- Keirsy Temperament Sorter
- Carl Jung’s typological approach to personality
- True Colors personality test
Why understanding leadership styles is important ?
Helps identify leadership strengths and weaknesses
Helps identify your natural tendencies and current dominant personality
Learn basic self-management skills and flexing your style to better communicate with others with different styles
Meet people at their level

Interpersonal Communication
Personal Power
Planning Presentations
Meetings – Part of your Brand
Listening – The most important communication component
Humor - Use appropriately!
Interpersonal Communication
Personal Power
Meetings –
Part of your Brand
Listening –
The most Important
communication component
3 Types of Interpersonal Communication

1. Verbal
2. Non Verbal
3. Written
Increase Personal Power:
- What matters to your audience?
- Use the person’s name when talking to them
- Be specific and clear
- Use persuasive language
- Use stories
- Use powerful visual language
- Use “and” instead of “but”
- Avoid using Jargon
Speak the same language
Know your audience
- Use persuasive language
1. Tell ‘em what you are going to tell ‘em
2. Tell ‘em
3. Tell ‘em what you told ‘em
• Define the project and major players
• Socialize the presentation with others
• Clarify team roles and responsibilities
• Help the team increase commitment
• Provide a collective opportunity for group discussions
• Emphasize the importance of teaming
• Provide visibility to the teams leadership
• Support creative problem solving
• Determine and cadence
• Send the agenda prior to the meeting
• Invite the appropriate people
• Avoid surprising prensenters
• Stay focused on the agenda – use parking lots
• Identify a scribe

After the meeting, follow up!
• Effective listening is the most important
component of communication
• Helps develop mutual rapport, trust, and respect
• One of the most powerful ways to stroke team
members, stakeholders, and executives

About 90% of communication is influenced by how it is delivered and only less than 10% are the words
Motivation – What is It?
Why is Motivation Important?
PMBOK’s Definition of Motivation
Money is not a long term motivator
Motivational Theories
Motivation and Project Management
Motivational – What is It?
Why is Motivation
PMBOK’s Definition
of Motivation
Money is not a
long term motivator
Motivational Theories
Motivation and
Project Management
Both the PM and Team need to be motivated.
The PM needs to be motivated to manage.
An internal drive to want to do something.
Cost of lack to motivation is disengagement.
Someone with low motivation can suffer psychologically and emotionally.
Job Satisfaction
Challenging Work
Sense of Accomplishment
Achievement and Growth
Sufficient Financial Compensation
Monetary incentives have led to an average increase of 30% in productivity.
Performance = Motivation X Abilities X Opportunity X Personality
Motivational Theories
What Causes Conflict?
3 Views of Conflict
Conflict can be Positive and Negative
Resolving Conflicts of Interest
Conflict Resolution Techniques
Plan for Conflict
Look for the Win-Win
What causes conflict?
3 views of conflict
Conflict can be positive and negative
conflicts of interest
Conflict resolution techniques
Plan for conflict
Look for win-win
What PMs Negotiate For
3 Common Methods of Negotiation
Types of Negotiations
Types of
3 Common methods of negotiations
What Project Managers Negotiate for
• Differences
• Incompatible goals of team
members and the organization’s
goals and expectations
• Structural relationships
• Limited resources
• Communication problems
• Change
Project Managers need to be able to identify and analyze the sources of conflict and their relationships in order to be effective
• Traditional
• Contemporary (Behavioral)
• Interactionist
The Value of Conflict

• Positive Aspects
• Negative Aspects
5 Conflict Resolution Techniques

1. Withdrawing
2. Smoothing
3. Forcing
4. Compromising
5. Collaborating/Confronting/Problem Solving (negotiating)
• It’s expected so plan ahead for it
• Develop a framework to deal with conflict
• Analyze the key players involved
• Prepare a communication strategy
• Prepare for stress management
Resolving conflicts of interest requires negotiation
• Look for win-win alternatives
• Formulate proactive conflict management strategies
• Use planning to resolve conflict
• Cut your losses when necessary
Time frames
Performance Standards
Technologies throughout the life cycle of a project

Negotiation is a fact of life in the project environment
• Soft Negotiation
• Hard Negotiation
• Principles Negotiation
• Win-win
• Win-lose
• Lose-lose
• Commitment to negotiate for mutual gain
• Don’t bargain over positions
• Separate the people from the problem
• Separate the relationship from the substance
• Focus on interest, not positions
• Generate options for mutual gain
• Use Objective criteria or standard
Emotional Intelligence (EI)
Benefits of EI
How to take self-assessment
Leadership Styles
Emotional Intelligence
A Few Benefits of EI
How to take A
Leadership Styles
Emotional intelligence is the ability to recognize and regulate emotions in ourselves and in others. –D. Goleman & Gary Cherniss

Self awareness is the starting point to emotional intelligence

• Developing better stakeholder relationships
• Avoiding emotional breakdowns
• Deal with difficult team members and manage conflict
• Better communication
• Higher team morale and positive work environment

• Be aware of your strengths and weaknesses
• Be reflective, learn from your experience
• Be open to candid feedback, new perspectives,
continuous learning, self development
• Be able to show a sense of humor and
• Laissez-faire
• Democratic
• Autocratic
• Bureaucratic
What Is Stress?
2 Major types of Stress
Effects of stress can be costly
Advice from the Experts
What Is Stress?
A response to pressures, responsibilities, and real or imaginary threats from the environment

Stress is a response, not the elements that cause it

2 Major types
of stress:
• Eustress – constructive stress
• Distress – destructive stress

Sources of Stress
• Role Ambiguity
• Role Conflict
• Project Management Style
• Role Overload
• Interpersonal Relationships
• Lack of Positive Reinforcement
• Career Development Concerns

Stress has both positive and negative effects

Effects of stress
can be costly
Costs can be intangible and tangible
• Increased health insurance premiums
• Lost Work days (sick time)
• Increased industrial accidents
• Legal problems
• Decreased Morale
• Unhealthy competition, strife

Stress can affect the quantity and quality of the output and performance

Both extremely low and high levels of stress can have a negative effect on performance

Physical and emotional exhaustion caused by excessive demands on emotions, energy and other personal resources

It’s caused by working too hard for too long on a regular basis or undergoing too many stressors over a short period of time

• Physiological
• Emotional
• Behavioral

Personalities determine how we react to stress
• Type A
• Type B
• Hardy

Participation: Allow team members to participate and use their own creativity

Environment: Create an environment where team members feel motivated and are treated with dignity and respect

Recognition: Recognize team members for their accomplishments

Knowledge: Help people gain training and information they need for their professional development

Style: Be consistent, fair, and predictable. Encourage open communication and emphasize building trust among team members
Advice from the experts
• The Five Year Test
• Don’t Sweat the small stuff
• Lend a helping hand
• Take Control
• Try teamwork
• Take a long hot bath

Types of Power
Personal Power vs Position Power
Why PM’s need to understand concepts of Power
Balanced Power
PMI Code of Conduct
• Reward
• Punishment
• Referent
• Expert
• Legitimate/Title Informative
• Persuasion/Charismatic
• Network
Types of Power
Personal Power
Vs Position Power
Position Power can be referred to as legitimate power, due to the organizational position a project manager holds

Personal Power is derived from the personality, knowledge and the expertise of the project manager

Leadership, power, influence, and politics are interrelated

Why Project managers need to understand concepts of Power
Project managers must understand the concepts of power and perception and acquire leadership and influencing skills and manage organizational politics to achieve project goals and objectives
Politics need to be managed at both the upper management level and the project level
Balanced Power
Power is balanced between the Project Manager and the Functional Manager
Code of Conduct
Morals/ Principles
Full transcript