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Antibiotics

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by

Ale Larrea

on 25 February 2015

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Transcript of Antibiotics

Antibiotics
Antibiotics are designed to attack unfriendly bacteria inside your body
How do they work?
What are the side effects?
What about Antibiotic resistance?
Implications
Do we need antibiotics?
Most common side effects of antibiotics are:
• Vomiting.
• Severe watery diarrhea and abdominal cramps.
• Allergic reaction (shortness of breath, hives, swelling of lips, face, or tongue, fainting)
• Rash.
• Vaginal itching or discharge.
• White patches on the tongue.

Side effects of antibiotics:
Allergic reactions:
Mild allergic reactions:
Anaphylaxis:
• a rapid heartbeat
• increasing breathing difficulties due to swelling and tightening of the neck
• a sharp and sudden drop in your blood pressure, which can make you feel light-headed and confused
• unconsciousness

• a raised itchy skin rash (urticaria or ‘hives’)
• coughing
• wheezing
• tightness of the throat, which can cause breathing difficulties
Different antibiotics do so in different ways
A bactericidal, like penicillin, kills the bacteria by attacking its cell wall
A bacteriostatic, like amoxicillin, stops the bacteria from multiplying
In all other cases, though, one could use alternative methods, in consultation with a doctor.
There are
certain illnesses that nearly always need antibiotic
treatment: are pneumonia, bacterial meningitis, urinary tract infections and sexually transmitted diseases caused by bacteria (a number are caused by viruses) and often, skin infections don't get better without antibiotic treatment.
http://www.rodalenews.com/antibiotics-bacterial-infections
Again, antibiotics only work on bacterial infections, and can do nothing to heal a viral infection like the flu or the common cold.
Adverse effects range from fever and nausea to major allergic reactions, including photodermatitis and anaphylaxis.
These mild to moderate allergic reactions can usually be successfully treated by taking a medication known as antihistamines.
Around one person in 15 has an allergic reaction to antibiotics, especially penicillin and cephalosporins.

In rare cases (estimated to be somewhere between one and five in 10,000) an antibiotic can cause a severe and potentially life-threatening allergic reaction known as Anaphylaxis. Initial Anaphylaxis is often the same as above and can lead to:
You take the antibiotics to kill all the bacteria, so you have to take all the antibiotics prescribed to avoid any bacteria being left in your body and becoming resistant to antibiotics.
Antibiotics are screened for any negative effects on humans or other mammals before approval for clinical use.
Some antibiotics have been associated with a range of Side-effects.
Side-effects range from mild to very serious depending on the antibiotics used, the microbial organisms targeted, and the individual patient.

You need to use
all the antibiotics
prescribed to avoid any bacteria being left in your body and becoming resistant to antibiotics, even though you feel better after a few days of taking antibiotics
Don't give antibiotics to anyone else, and don't take someone else's antibiotic.
It is very important that you take the right antibiotic for your condition.
http://www.webmd.com/cold-and-flu/cold-guide/antibiotics-colds?
(If you have leftover medication , do not take them unless your doctor tells you it's okay. The leftover antibiotics may not work on whatever is making you sick. If they do work, there probably will not be enough leftover medicine to completely kill all the bacteria in your body.)
Antibiotic resistance
Antibiotic resistance occurs when a bacteria acquires a genetic mutation either spontaneously, by a gene transfer, or it can acquire the resistance gene from other bacteria by horizontal gene transfer via conjugation, transduction or transformation.
Antibiotic resistance genes are found on plasmids making their transfer easier. Antibiotic resistance plasmids frequently contain genes conferring resistance to several different antibiotics.
Antibiotic resistance
What bacteria were meant to fight
Darwin- natural selection
Mutations
What is antibiotic resistance

It occurs when an antibiotic has lost its ability to effectively control or kill bacteria
Bacteria are resistant and continue to multiply in the presence of therapeutic levels of an antibiotic
How do bacteria become resistant
Some bacteria are naturally resistant
Genetic mutation
Acquiring resistance from another bacterium
Plasmids
Plasmids are usually found in prokaryotes. They are small, extra DNA molecules,
useful
for the cell but
not essential
to basic life processes.

Genes for antibiotic resistance are often found on plasmids - meaning they can form multi-drug resistance.


The significance of this is that current antibiotics become ineffective,

and since it takes too long to create and approve a new one (plus it's a business most wouldn't want to pay for a drug people don't take on a regular basis...)

we could go on for years without an effective antibiotic to attack the viruses that make us sick
How does antibiotic resistance transfer?
horizontally
vertically
plasmids are released
when a prokaryotic cell dies,
and another cell of a different species absorbs it. This can happen between different bacterial species
antibiotic resistance spreads as bacteria themselves move from place to place; bacteria can travel via airplane, water and wind. People can pass the resistant bacteria to others; for example, by coughing or contact with unwashed hands.
when new generations inherit antibiotic resistance genes
environmentally
http://www.tufts.edu/med/apua/about_issue/about_antibioticres.shtml
Antibiotics
Antibiotics are powerful medicine that fight bacterial infection
Need to be used properly
Killing bacteria
keeping bacteria from reproducing
Antibiotics do not fight infections caused by virused
Cold, flu, cough, bronchitis
Full transcript