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VERBS

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Addie Stratton

on 21 August 2013

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Transcript of VERBS

VERBS
A Verb Has Forms
Verb Tenses Make Time Relationships Clear
Voice Indicates the Relationship Between a Verb and its Subject.
The mood of a verb expresses the writer's attitude toward an action, a state, or an event.
the word in a sentence that expresses action or being
Regular verbs have 4 forms
1.
Base Form
- the form you find in a dictionary

example: talk, act, walk
2
. -s Form
- add an s to the dictionary form

example: talks, acts, walks
3.
-ing Form
- present participle, consists of the base form and the ending -ing

example: talking, acting, walking
4.
-ed Form
- consist of the base form and the ending -ed.

example: talked, acted, walked

A Phrasal Verbs Consists of a Main Verb and an Adverbial Particles
Irregular Verbs Have From 3-8 Forms
Many irregular verbs have forms similar to regular verbs (write) such as -s form (writes) and -ing form (writing). However, the past form of some words (wrote) and the past participle (written) vary from the regular forms. Some irregular verbs have two past forms and participle forms.
Phrasal verb is a combination of a verb and an adverbial particle such as
up
,
out
, or
on
. Sometimes the combination conveys a meaning that differs from the common meanings of the words. (She blew up the photograph so that she could see the faces.) Other times the meanings of the phrasal verb are similar to common definitions and the adverbial verb adds a sense of completion. (They finished up the report by 6 o'clock.) The last type of phrasal verbs uses the common meetings of the word. (They hung up the banner.)
Auxiliary verbs combine with main verbs and don't always have to be auxiliary

Be
combining with main verbs, both regular and irregular: am, is, are, was, were, writing
Do
combining with main verbs, both regular and irregular: does, do, did call
Have
combining with main verbs, both regular and irregular: has, have, had prepared
used as main verbs:
be
- I am from Texas.
used as both an auxiliary and a main verb: They
are being
careful.
used as main verbs:
do
- He does his homework early in the morning.
used as an auxiliary and a main verb:
Did
you
do
your taxes by yourself?
used as main verbs:
have
- They have an apartment near a park.
used as an auxiliary and a main verb: She
has
not
had
and free time this week.
Common Meanings Of Modal Auxiliaries
ability
certainty
obligation
meaning
advice
modal auxiliaries
+
main verb
example
can, could
will
must
should
afford
succeed
return
talk
They can afford to buy a small house.
We will succeed by dint of our hard work.
You must return your books by the due date.
He should talk with his counselor.
modal auxiliary's have more than one meaning
CAUTION:
When a modal auxiliary occurs with the auxiliary have (should have known), have frequently sounds like the word of. When you proofread, be sure that modal auxiliaries aren't followed by of.
They
could of taken
another route. (wrong)
They
could have taken
another route.
There are also phrasal modals, or auxiliary verbs consisting of more than one word.
EXAMPLE:
be able to (ability): We were able to fond the original document.
have to (obligation): To complete the application, you have to include your test results.
Also there is be going to, be supposed to, had better, used to, and ought to.


Participles are accompanied by auxiliary verbs
Ex:
Dreaming of far places. It should be We were dreaming of far places.
Simple tenses have many uses, not all related to specific points in time.
conjugation includes two verb forms: the base and the -s from
SINGLE PRESENT TENSE
Singular
Plural
First Person
Second Person
Third Person
I work
You work
He, she, it works
We work
You work
They work
Present, past and future don't always refer to the actions happening now. The simple present tense is used to indicate a current state, a habitual action, or a general truth.
It can also be used to add a sense of immediacy to historical actions.
Simple Past Tense
this is used to refer to completed past actions or events
Simple Past Tense
First Person
Singular
Plural
Second Person
I worked
You worked
He, she , it worked
Third Person
We worked
You worked
They worked
has only one form with the -ed ending
Simple Future Tense
has only one form: the base form accompanied by the auxiliary will
Simple Future Tense
Singular
Plural
First Person
Second Person
Third Person
I will work
We will work
You will work
He, she, it will work
You will work
They will work
This refers to future actions or states
Progressive tenses indicate that events have begun but have not been completed.
The present progressive tense consists of a form of the auxiliary verb be and the present participle (-ing form) of the main verb
Singular
Plural
First Person
Second Person
Third Person
I am working
We are working
You are working
You are working
He, she, it is working
They are working
present participles stay the same regardless of person and number but auxiliary be appears in three forms: am, is, and are

present progressive tense signals an activity in progress or a temporary situation.

present progressive tense can refer to a future event when it occurs with a word indicating time
Past Progressive Tense
this is a combination of the auxiliary verb be and the present participle (-ing form) of the main verb, however, the auxiliary verb is in the past tense, rather than in the present
singular
plural
first person
second person
third person
I was working
We were working
You were working
You were working
He, she, it was working
They were working
signals an action or event that occurred in the past
Future Progressive Tense
one form
two auxiliaries, will and be, are used along with the -ing form of the main verb
singular
plural
first person
second person
third person
I will be working
We will be working
You will be working
You will be working
He, she, it will be working
They will be working
refers to actions that will occur in the future
Perfect tenses indicate action performed prior to a particular time
The present perfect tense is formed by combining the auxiliary have with the past participle of the main verb.
singular
plural
first person
second person
third person
I have worked
We have worked
You have worked
You have worked
He, she, it has worked
They have worked
the participle remains the same regardless of person and number; however, the auxiliary has two forms; has and have


Perfect Progressive Tenses Combine the Forms of the Progressive and the Perfect Tenses
The present progressive tense consists of two auxiliaries, have and be, plus the present participle of the main verb.
singular
plural
first person
second person
third person
I have been working
You have been working
You have been working
You have been working
He, she, it has been working
They have been working
The form of the auxiliary have varies with person and number .
The auxiliary be appears as the past participle.
The present perfect progressive signals that an action, state, or event originated in the past is ongoing or incomplete.
Past Perfect Progressive Tense
follows the pattern had + been + present participle (-ing form) of the main verb
the auxiliary have is in the past tense
singular
plural
first person
second person
third person
I had been working
You had been working
He, she, it had been working
We will have been working
You will have been working
They will have been working
refers to a situation or action occurring over a period of time in the past prior to another past action or time
Future Perfect Progressive Tense
follows the pattern will+ have+been + present participle of the main verb
singular
plural
first person
second person
third person
I will have been working
You will have been working
He, she, it will have been working
We will have been working
You will have been working
They will have been working
refers to an action that is occurring in the present and will continue to occur for a specific amount of time
The Auxiliary Verb so is used to question, negate, or emphasize.
Unlike be and have, the auxiliary verb do doesn't occur with other verbs to indicate tense. instead, it is used to question, negate, or emphasize.
Do you have any questions? (question)
I do not have any questions. (negation)
I do have a few questions. (emphatic sentence)
The auxiliary do is used only in the simple present (do, does) and the simple past (did).
Tense forms should appear in logical sequence
Combining tense forms in a single sentence gives readers information about how actions and events are related in time and duration.

Infinitives and participles can be used to express time in relations withing a sentence.

The perfect infinitive (to+have+past participle) signals that an action didn't occur.

The present participle (-ing form) indicated simultaneous or previous action.

The perfect participle (having+past participle) expresses action completed before the main verb.

The past participle can be used to express action or previous action.


Verbs may be linking, intransitive, or transitive
linking verb
- relates the subject and word referring to the subject.
example: Claudia
is
studios

intransitive verb
- doesn't take an object meaning there's no noun following the verb receiving the action.
example: Claudia
studies
hard.

transitive verb-
takes a direct object; that is, a noun follows the verb and receives its action.
example: Claudia
wrote
the prize-winning essay.




The active voice emphasizes the actor and the action.
Sentences that have the active voice are more vigorous than passive sentences. Voice emphasizes actor and action.

Passive: The graduation ceremony was planned by a group of students. A well-known columnist was invited to give the address.

Revised: A group of students planned the graduation ceremony. They invited a well-known columnist to give the address.

The passive voice highlights the recipient of the action
Passive voice differs from active.

First, the subject is the recipient of the action, not the actor.
Second, if an actor is mentioned, that noun or pronoun is placed in a prepositional phrase in the beginning with the preposition by.
Finally, the verb is different. A verb in passive consists of a form of the auxiliary verb be.
Use passive voice when you want to stress an action rather than an actor.
Verb forms signal moods
Verb forms used for the subjunctive mood are the present subjunctive, the past subjunctive and the perfect subjunctive. The present subjunctive is the base form of the verb.
The subjunctive is mainly used in dependent clauses.
You don't normally use subjunctive when talking to friends, but, you use it in writing. It shows how you feel about a claim.
The forms of the word awake
-s form
Awakes
-ing form (present participle)
awaking
Past form
Awaked, awoke
Past PArticiple
awaked, awoken
Base form
Awake
The instructor said that we may have an extension. [permission]
The weather may improve by tomorrow. [probability]
Present participles (-ing verb forms) are used with the auxiliary verb be ( we
were waiting
for the next flight). Depending on the intended meaning, past participles can be used with either be or have (We
have waited
for an hour. The first flight
was canceled
). If there is only a participle in a sentence, it's probably a fragment.
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