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Copy of Sociology Chapter 5 ppt
Transcript of Copy of Sociology Chapter 5 ppt
False. 5. In Solomon Asch's study regarding lines on cards, he found that:
the pressure toward group conformity was established when members were assured they were not going to hurt anyone.
the pressure toward group conformity was not established.
the pressure toward group conformity was established through members contradicting their best judgments.
the pressure toward group conformity was established when numbers were low. 4. Social groups, according to Conflict theorists:
work toward helping individuals at the expense of groups.
involve a series of power relationships which may not equally serve individual members.
involve looking at various status characteristics which assist in understanding the power dynamic.
involve gaining better access to overthrow the Bourgeois mentality. 3. Reference groups are also a major source of:
anticipatory socialization 2. Ingroup and outgroup distinctions may:
encourage only prejudice.
encourage both social cohesion and prejudice.
none of the choices.
encourage only social cohesion. Quick Quiz 6. The self-protective behavior of officials at the top in bureaucracies may render the organization inefficient.
True. 1. A collection of people who happen to be in the same place at the same time but share little else in common are a(n):
aggregate Alternative Forms of Organization “Humanizing” the bureaucracy:
Greater sharing of power and responsibility.
Encouragement of participants to share their ideas and try new approaches.
Efforts to reduce the number of people in dead‑end jobs and to help people meet family responsibilities. Characteristics and Effects of Bureaucracy Types of Formal Organizations Irving Janis developed an influential theory of group decision making that he called groupthink.
Groupthink involves an extreme form of group cohesiveness in which group members begin to think alike and do not question each other or consider alternative choices in making a decision. Group Think Group Leadership Functions Instrumental leadership is most appropriate when the group’s purpose is to complete a task or reach a particular goal.
Expressive leadership is most appropriate when the group is dealing with emotional issues, and harmony, solidarity, and high morale are needed. Group Size How likely would you be to join an organization where membership is determined by race?
Very unlikely Polling Question Influences a person’s behavior and attitudes, regardless of whether they are a member.
We may act more like members of a group we want to join than members of groups to which we already belong.
In this case, reference groups are a source of anticipatory socialization. Reference Groups Sumner’s Ingroups and OutGroups Polling Question Which type of group is the most important to you?
Secondary group Aggregates and Categories Aggregates happen to be in the same place at the same time:
Airline passengers, shoppers, waiting at a traffic light
Categories share a similar characteristic:
Students, elderly, Native Americans How Much Do You Know About Privacy in Groups? False
The Family Educational Right to Privacy Act, which allows parents of a student under 18 to obtain their child’s grades, requires the student’s consent once they are 18; however, that law applies only to institutions that receive federal educational funds. How Much Do You Know About Privacy in Groups? True or False?
Parents of students at U.S. colleges and universities are entitled to a transcript of their children’s college grades, regardless of the student’s age. Chapter Outline Social Groups
Group Characteristics and Dynamics
Formal Organizations in Global Perspective
Alternative Forms of Organization
Organizations in the Future Chapter 5 Groups and Organizations Answer: B Laissez-faire leaders do not like to be involved in the decision making process of government that affects individuals’ lives. Answer: B It’s true that the self-protective behavior of officials at the top in bureaucracies may render the organization inefficient. Answer: C In Solomon Asch's study regarding lines on cards, he found that the pressure toward group conformity was established through members contradicting their best judgments. Answer: B Social groups, according to Conflict theorists, involve a series of power relationships which may not equally serve individual members. Answer: D Reference groups are also a major source of anticipatory socialization. Answer: B Ingroup and outgroup distinctions may encourage both social cohesion and prejudice. Answer: D A collection of people who happen to be in the same place at the same time but share little else in common are an aggregate. Informal Side of Bureaucracy Those aspects of participants’ day-to-day activities and interactions that ignore, bypass, or do not correspond with the official rules and procedures of the bureaucracy. Milgram’s Obedience Experiment: Results Asch’s research assistants tried to influence participants to pick Line 1 or 3 as the match for the line in the lower card.
Many went along rather than risk the opposition of the “group.” Asch’s Research Group Leadership Styles Authoritarian leaders - often criticized for fostering intergroup hostility.
Democratic leaders - praised for supportive behavior and blamed for being indecisive in a crisis.
Laissez-faire leaders - do not provide active leadership. Possible Interactions Based on Group Size Cooley’s Primary and Secondary Groups How Much Do You Know About Privacy in Groups? True.
Although confidential communications made privately to religious leader cannot be divulged without the consent of the person making the communication, this does not apply when other people are present who are likely to hear the statement. How Much Do You Know About Privacy in Groups? True or False?
Students at a church youth group meeting who hear a member of the group confess to an illegal act can be required to divulge what that member said. Social Groups A collection of two or more people who:
Share a sense of belonging.
Have a feeling of interdependence. Questions for You… Make a list of the various groups to which you belong.
Which groups have had the greatest impact on your development?
How have your group associations changed based on the different stages in your life?