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Sanitation in Dharavi Slums
Transcript of Sanitation in Dharavi Slums
Diana Rukavina Quality of Life and Sanitation:
Kendsie Hunter Quality of Life and Sanitation:
Blake Mesyn Government and Sanitation:
Andrew Myrick Government and Sanitiation: Sala Wanetick Nongovernmental Organizations and Sanitation:
Bianca Benguche Possible Solutions:
Michael Montpetit Possible Solutions:
Kelly Young The existence of slums inMumbai, occurred as early as the 18th centuryIn the middle of the 19th century slums grew around the mills and other places of employment.
The cotton boom, followed by the rapid growth of mills and shipping drew a large population from the rest of the country into a city ill-equipped to deal with them.
However, some slums were initially villages, but developed into slums as the city grew around them. An example of this is one of the oldest slums in Mumbai, Dharvi.
Often, multiple generations of a family will have lived within the slums.
The 1st official enumeration of the population living in slums was performed in 1976 and It found 2.8 million people in 1,680 settlements all over the city. The total population was then 5.9 million.
The 2nd count in ‘83 found 1,930 settlements containing 4.3 million people.
The most recent estimates that 40% of the city’s citizens are living in only 3.5% of the city’s area.
(Jazmen Moore) A survey in 1986 revealed that that there were only 800 lavatory blocks in Dharavi, for a population around 400,000 people. This was only about 15-20 toilets per block, and these numbers have barely changed, although the population in Mumbai has more than doubled since then.
(Jazmen Moore) For Slums in Mumbai, such as Dharvi, access to both water and lavatories is extremely limited:
Most of the water is accessed through public standpipes located in various parts of the slum
Water is released in these taps at different times of the day for a couple of hours at a time.
There is no option but to collect the water whenever it is released. The timings can be at any time of the day or the night, forcing each individual slum to devise their own system of water distribution.
The lavatories are also very few and those that exist are usually filthy, broken down and generally unusable: it is safer to defecate in the open than to use some of them.
(Jazmen Moore) Why Is This An Urban Issue?
As we’ve discussed in class and as mentioned within GGC and Building Suburbia, cities can very rarely be considered sustainable when they lack adequate plumbing and running water, drainage for sewage, and a sufficient number of toilets; basic tenants of sanitary sustainability within an urban setting.
Mumbai is a major city and urban setting within India, but the vast majority of its population lives in slums where there are limited to no water sources, that huge communities have to share and the water is not always safe for use. There is no proper drainage system, no waste removal program, and of the few toilets that each slum has, many citizens often chose not to use them because of how filthy and run-down they are. This lack of sanitary sustainability can lead to a number of negative drawbacks for the Mumbai citizens living in the slums, such as serious health complications for those citizens.
(Jazmen Moore) Open Defication
36,704 public toilets (101 persons/seat)
12,612 (or 1/3) are non-functioning
Open city sewers drain to creek
(Brett Johnson) Floods:
Monsoon season poses major threats:
Excessive rainfall combined with high tides
Built environment (urbanization, sprawl)
Poor waste/storm water management
Flooded rivers/reserviors containing human excrements leads to many health risks such as leptospirosis, malaria, dengue, and gastroenteritis
(Brett Johnson) The environmental problems in slums are aggravated due to a number of factors like: their location at environmentally unsafe sites (near polluted waterways), no sewage and sanitation in the communities, poor personal hygiene due to less availability of water, poverty and lack of environmental education.
(Brett Johnson) Sanitation is a big issue in Dharavi. There about 600000 to over a miliion people living in Dhavari and with a sanitation problem a lot of people get ill. The lack of bathrooms and not being able to go to the bathroom many resident of the slums use the river as the bathroom. The river is called Mahim Creek is know as “sweet” because it is so polluted from people urination and defecation.
(Diana Rukavina) The Monsoons
The monsoon is a rain season that lasts from June to September. During the monsoon season you will see a lot of flooding of human excrement because Dharavi has poor drainage. Also the water becomes contaminated where it causes illness and it also states that it increases 50% of deaths.
(Diana Rukavina) Around Dharavi you will see a lot of waste material that are hazardous are being burned and due to that it is causing health issues such as tuberculosis, cancer etc. Another big issues that causes air pollution is the transportation system. Also they burn kilns which are cloth scraps that causes air pollutions in Dharavi.
(Diana Rukavina) Diseases and Health Concerns:
Other skin diseases
(Blake Mesyn) Air Pollutants
Pollutants in the air from the dumping grounds near the slums leads to asthma, lung cancer and other respiratory problems for residents in the slums
(Blake Mesyn) Increased Mortality Rate
In Mumbai infant mortality is 35.12 per 1000 live births compared to 60.8 per 1000 in Govandi, a near by city to the 110 hectare Deonar garbage dump
(Blake Mesyn) Water Pollutants
Fish have been found dead in nearby lakes that produce fresh water for Mumbai
These are the same waters where fish are caught for eating
(Blake Mesyn) Problems Facing People Living in the Slums:
Monsoons: with the torrential downpours in the swampy area, many waterborne illnesses occur between July and September. There are open sewers and low lying, marshy land that allow open sewage, industrial toxins and trash to take over living areas.
Overcrowding: millions of people live and work in the slums, but the size of the land is not growing as fast as the number of people calling Dharavi home. When there is one toilet for every 4,000 people, many problems come to the surface.
Dangerous Work Environment: Dharavi is one of the largest income generating areas in Mumbai. Many small scale industries and businesses operate in the homes of residents, causing pollution from various industries to enter homes.
(Kendsie Hunter) Its Not All Bad...
Living in the city provides more opportunity than living in rural areas.
Families and friends from the same rural villages tend to live in the same area and share food, clothing, space and care for children: communal living.
The slums are vibrant communities full of entrepreneurial people looking to improve their livelihood.
(Kendsie Hunter) Why is Sanitation an Urban Problem?
Overpopulation and Lack of Capacity: with thousands of people living in such a small area, officials, organizations and families face many difficulties ensuring good sanitation
Costs vs. Benefits: is the cost of a toilet worth the use that it will get? Is the cost of running water worth the money it takes to get it there?
Role of Democracy: Who has the resident’s interest in mind? Are their voices heard?
Widespread Outcomes: when sanitation is not taken care of, education, hygiene, income, etc suffer
Lack of Good Data: India as a nation is known for their poor accountability and record keeping about health and sanitation.
(Kendsie Hunter) Mumbai Sewerage Disposal Project
Undertaken by the World Bank, it involved improving old drainage lines and adding underground drainage system in the slums.
Another key component was slum resident were required to form or join a society and contribute a one time payment of Rs 100($2.00U.S.D.)
This project was ultimately a failure, even though the World Bank had put 70million dollars into it
The main reason for the failure is that people are not familiar with the concept of paying for services, and did not find it necessary to make the small one time payment
(Sala Wanetick) Slum Sanitation Project
This was added onto the Mumbai Sewerage Disposal Project, only this had a more specific focus on the slums
In this program, the slum residents were encouraged to take an active role in the planning of community toilet blocks that were to be built under the SSP.
Community toilet blocks differ from public ones because these are only intended for a specific community and so users feel a sense of ownership over them and take charge of management.
They were also built in a new way for Mumbai, the SSP contracted out their entire process, which led to interest from the private sector because of possibly economic gains.
(Sala Wanetick) Sulabh International- NGO
An Indian based social service organization, Sulabh has created “Sulabh Shouchalaya”, the most popular sanitation facilities in Mumbai.
They follow the “pay as you go” concept.
Most of their toilets are in slum areas, and there are also several in commercial areas
There is a slum subsidy rate which is about$00.22 a month per family.
(Sala Wanetick) Several problems of Mumbai have reached such discouraging levels that they can be overcome only via a concerted city-wide initiative. If such initiatives involve citizens as well it introduces a spirit of volunteerism and of giving back to society. The advantage of such projects is that they have a huge positive lasting impact. Moreover, for such projects, everyone is willing to work together, corporate, NGOs, citizens, volunteers, government authorities, media, etc.
(Bianca Benguche) Possibilities:
Beautification and increasing green cover by identifying spots for planting shrubs / trees, planting them, and arranging for regular maintenance
Planting Neem Trees to improve the environment and also prevent spread of mosquitoes. This can be a community initiative with local citizens identifying locations for the trees, as well as volunteering to protect the saplings.
Reducing green house gas emissions by transforming leisure use patterns.
Parks and Gardens with playgrounds for children, walking path for adults, and large open spaces where everyone can move freely to be developed in each locality to spread greenery, beauty, good health for all age groups.
Improved hygiene awareness is critical to prevent outbreak of diseases and epidemics, especially in congested living areas.
Cleanliness of local train stations and railway tracks can go a long way in not only image building of the city but also of the general hygiene and health of the millions who use the trains.
Eco-sanitation programme using Eco-Toilets - reactors that generate the resource to treat any kind of garbage be it biomedical waste or chemically toxic laced organics.
Effective waste management that is responsive and proactive to the needs of the people.
Community clean up of beaches and parks by citizens and Local Area Citizen Groups, along with appropriate infrastructural support from the Government.
Creatively improving the environment via student volunteers to clean up, paint, and decorate portions of local Government schools, compound walls, etc. so as to beautify the area and keep it clean thereafter.
(Bianca Benguche) Since 1995, the alliance ofNational Slum-dwellers Federation, Mahila Milanand SPARC has helped slum communities in over 50 Indian cities to design and build community-managed toilets.The U.S. Agency for International Development-funded Cross- Cutting Agra Project and other programs are trying to bridge the sanitation gap. The Indian government is also contributing. Rural families living below the poverty line are eligible for a 1,500 rupee subsidy to build household latrines under the Total Sanitation Campaign. The decade-old program focuses on educating people about the link between good hygiene and health to change behavior and spur their desire for toilets. UN agencies such as Unicef provide technical information and recommendations on toilet systems.
(Bianca Benguche) Community Led Total Sanitation
Community Led Total Sanitation (CLTS) is a communal/Identity approach which operates under the notion of participatory urban appraisals or the process of incorporating the knowledge, skills and opinions of the slum dwellers into the planning and management of projects and programs.
(Michael Montpetit) 4 Components:
(Michael Montpetit) Group Dynamics: Feedback sessions, role reversal and learningcontracts.
Sampling: Social mapping, wealth ranking, human capitaland demography.
Interviewing: Focus group discussions, semi-structuredinterviews, triangulation.
Visualization: Diagrams, blueprints, planning schemes and timelines
(Michael Montpetit) Knowledge is Power
Education is key in changing the poor sanitation issues surrounding Dharavi. With cultural values that are difficult to change in older generations, the focal point for change must be the youth of Dharavi. The future generations must be armed with education and information to make positive changes towards a healthier living environment.
(Kelly Young) Start in School: In school, students must learn the following in regards to water and environmental sanitation
• What is safe water
• Water- sanitation- health linkages
• Illness and its consequences
• Ideas about water quality
• Sources of water
• Water conservation
• Need for protection of water
• Ideas about recycling of water
• Rain water harvesting
• Simple methods of water treatment
• Why to stop open defecation
• Importance of use of toilets
• What is sanitary latrine
• Maintaining safe distance between toilet pit and water source
• Importance of hand-washing
• Importance of regular nail-cutting, mouth-washing, bathing
• Importance of personal hygiene
• Domestic and environmental cleanliness
• Solid waste segregation (organic & inorganic) at source
• Use of containers for storing waste
• House to house collection of Solid Waste
• Importance of good drainage
• Hygiene in food handling, cooking, eating, storage, etc.
(Kelly Young) School Clubs
With knowledge and information regarding sanitation, schools and community groups can focus on the promotion of water, sanitation and hygiene through clubs in schools. The membership of these clubs gives youth a chance to feel important about themselves and take their roles in practicing and promoting healthy hygiene. Through education, awareness, and practicing healthy hygiene; the youth of Dharavi can help change the minds of the preexisting generations into that of a more sanitary living environment. What children learn in school will trickle out to their brothers, sisters, parents, aunts, uncles, grandparents, etc.
(Kelly Young) Let The Youth Get Involved!
Another way to help educate and promote positive changes in sanitation through children has been through NGO sponsored programs that partner with specific schools to engage in a fun and exciting way to teach children about sanitation awareness. An example of this would be an NGO group that runs special schools for street children and promotes Child Parliaments that debate on the water and sanitation scenario in Dharavi. Children actually dress up as Members of Parliament / Legislative Assembly and actually enact a mock of the parliament in progress complete with a Speaker. They raise questions and answers on drinking water and sanitation facilities and provisions made by the Govt. For this, the organization (NGO) provides updated information to these children.
(Kelly Young) History of CLTS
Community Led Total Sanitation was first implemented in rural Bangladesh in 1999. Its goal is to provide an initiative for creating plans for low cost sanitation. However, CLTS is not limited to this premise. Another one of its concepts is providing clean drinking water to people.
(Michael Montpetit) Sanitation:
An Urban Problem in Dharavi
(A Slum of Mumbai, India)
Professor A. Montgomery
SOC 375: Urban Sociology