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Counseling in a Multicultural World
Transcript of Counseling in a Multicultural World
A Multicultural World
According to Robinson: Multicultural counseling emphasizes an ecological framework in which knowledge of culture, race, ethnicity, gender, sexual orientation, age, family history, spiritually, values and attitudes are fundamental to understanding a client in counseling
Cross-cultural counseling: "Professional Intervention and counseling relationships in which the counselor and the client belong to different cultural groups, subscribe to different worlds views and have distinguishing differences such as gender, sexual orientation, disabilities, social class, and life span period" (Baruth and Manning, 2007)
Counseling African American Clients
Represent in the United States the second largest cultural group (approx. 35 million people)
Heterogeneous group: some grew up in the rural south, others in northern cities, or recent immigrants from Latin America or Africa.
Diverse in terms of social class, geographical location and education attainment.
Counseling Asian American Clients
Represent one of the fastest growing groups in the United States.
Asian American are of different heritages: China, India, Indonesia, Japan, Philippines, Laos, Malaysia, Pakistan, Sri Lanka, Taiwan, Thailand and Vietnam.
Great linguistic diversity speaking more than 100 languages and dialects.
Have a greater proportion of college graduates
Counseling Hispanic American Clients
Represent the largest ethnic minority in the United States
Diverse group coming: Mexico (64%), Puerto Rico (10%), Cuba, El Salvador, and Dominican Republic (3%), and other Central American Countries.
California, Texas, Florida and New York have the largest Hispanic American Population.
Approximately 23% live in poverty.
Alcohol, drug abuse, and unemployment are serious problems for low income.
Counseling Native Indian American
Cherokee was the largest tribal grouping (15%)
Navajo was the second largest tribal grouping (11%)
Are the lowest in the socioeconomic scale (Baruth and Manning, 2007)
Problems related to survival, poverty, unemployment, discrimination and stereotyping.
Alcoholism is a major concern along with domestic violence.
Is an organized set of thoughts, believes, and norms for interaction and communication among people which may influence, cognitions, behavior, and perception (Ingraham and Mayers, 2000)
"A way that a group of people defines itself or is defined by others as being different from other groups because of assumed innate physical characteristics" (Baruth and Manning, 2005)
Baruth identified 5 categories of race:
Black or African American
Native Hawaiian or other Pacific Islander
Gender: Socially constructed masculine and feminine roles that man and women play based on biological sex. (Robinson and Watt, 2000)
Gender roles for women and men include expectations, behaviors and attitudes created by society such as provider, house maker, caretaker and soldier.
Masculinity: characteristics traditionally viewed as exhibited by men (independence, strong will, resistant)
Femininity: associated with traits exhibited by women (nurturance, care taking,, not using harsh language)
Women are the primarily consumers of counseling services. (Fischer, 1999)
Issues with multiple roles: traditional culture expects women to be spouse and parent
The roles of employee and caregiver are now added to the women's role functions.
Problems in relationships can occur with the change of roles.
Besides over-stressed and overwhelmed women sometimes they are also victims of domestic violence and mental health problems.
Men may be hesitant to seek counseling due to the traditional male socialization.
Socialized to be independent, strong willed and restrained.
Counselors need to be aware that many men will be loners and reluctant to talk.
Certain mental health problems are more prevalent in men than women such as: substance abuse, disorders and antisocial behaviors
Culturally aware counselors are aware of their own assumptions values and biases.
Culturally competent counselors understand the worldviews of culturally diverse clients; the counselors become knowledgeable about their culture background, way of life, and everyday living experiences.
Culturally competent counselors use only those intervention of strategies and techniques that are appropriate to the client's cultural values and customs.
Regardless of marital status, children are readily accepted into the family.
Education in highly Valued
Often concerned about factors related to physical and economic survival, such as poverty unemployment, housing and health care.
Problems may include depression, alcohol and drug abuse, poor academic performance and juvenile delinquency.
Poverty rates was highest among Koreans, Vietnamese and Chinese.
Chinese and Japanese are more likely to work in management or professional occupations
Those from India or the Philippines have the highest median household income
Have a higher median incomes
were more likely to be employed in management or professional occupations,
Shame is used to reinforce family expectations about appropriate behavior.
Tend to underutilized mental health and personal counseling services (perhaps emotional problems are viewed as shameful and distressing)
When they do seek counseling they might resist talking about themselves or displaying emotions.
Immigrant groups typically have problems related to language, depression, unemployment and housing.
Religious believes and traditions are closely tied to their attitudes about mental health and mental illness
Use meditation or negotiation to solve problems
Family unity comes before individuals welfare.
Common problems experienced by Hispanic Americans:
Frustration trying to maintain traditional values
The belief that all Hispanic Americans, regardless of geographic origin, have the same cultural characteristics.
School drop outs rates are high due to language barriers
Hispanic families encourage children to Speak spanish at home tying to preserve cultural identification.
Common Values among Hispanic Americans
Dignity: honor, self-respect, self-pride, responsibility.
Familism: importance of family, obedience, respect toward elders, hard work
Machisim: Manhood, dignity, and respect
Personalism: Loyalty, honesty, generosity, hospitality
Respect: courtesy, humility and obedience
Sympathic: Charming, agreeable and outgoing
Those who have college degrees are often seen as abandoning their people and heritage.
Aunts, uncles and grandparents often serve as parents.
The traditional healing approaches of shamans and medicine men are used frequently.
Counseling Sexual Orientation
Between 5% and 10% of the U.S. Population is homosexual (Moursund & Kenny, 2002)
Reluctance to acknowledge is related to a history of discrimination and abuse.
Negative attitudes began to change after the gay liberation movement.
Prejudice against gays began to re-emerge in the mid 1980's due to the spread of Human Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV)
Some of the reasons why men seek counseling are:
Dissatisfaction with their jobs
Having trouble with intimate relationships
Undergoing life transitions
Some of them are emotionally numb, burdened with responsibilities, and dissatisfying with themselves.
Stress in work
Counseling Sexual Orientation
Presented by Laura May
"A culturally distinct population whose members share a collective identity and a common heritage" (Baruth and Manning, 2007)
The percentage of African Americans who live in poverty is 25%
Regardless of socioeconomic status, counselors must be aware of possible feelings of powerlessness and rage because of centuries of discrimination and oppression.
Native Indian American
Transgender: used to describe people with nontraditional gender identities.
LGBT: abbreviation for Lesbian, Gay, Bisexual and Transgender.
some of the concerns that counselors have are:
LGBT clients experience discrimination and injustice.
Transgender clients experience issues transitioning from one gender to another.
LGBT clients also have problems common to everyone: identity, interpersonal career and family issues.
Machismo, often misunderstood as being related to men's sexual prowess and women's objectification, describes stoicism, the masculine traits of dignity, respect, and sometimes dominance within the family.
Sometimes strong family caring reduces the need for outside help for mental health services.