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The Underground Railroad

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Fairuz I.

on 7 June 2013

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Transcript of The Underground Railroad

The Underground Railroad By: Fairuz K. THE ROUTES, KEY FIGURES AND CANADA'S ROLE IN THE UNDERGROUND RAILROAD Canada United States of America Europe Dominican Republic Africa United Kingdom Virgina Upper Canada The Roots and Timeline of Slavery The reasoning behind the creation of the Underground Railroad 1501-African Slaves were brought to the New World, namely the United States, by Spanish settlers. Slaves were taken from Africa to Santa Domingo, the present day capital of the Dominican Republic ("The Underground Railroad"). 1619-African Slaves were brought to Jamestown, Virginia. These were the first slaves imported into the British North American Colonies; these slaves could have been freed after a fixed period of time ("The Underground Railroad"). Jamestown, Virginia 1705- In 1705 slaves were categorized as real estate. Lawmakers in Virginia created a law which stated that slaves could be sold or bought, the same law allowed slave owners to “kill or destroy” runaway slaves.

1775- American Revolution begins. This battle lasted for eight long years from 1775-1783, in which the Thirteen Colonies of British North America fought for their freedom from Britain. In 1783 British North America became the United States of America.

1780- The Underground Railroad is established

1783-American Revolution ends ("The Underground Railroad") 1793- Lieutenant Governor of Upper Canada, John Graves Simcoe, passes the Anti-Slavery Act. This law outlawed the act of importing people into Upper Canada to be enslaved ("Timeline: The Underground Railroad"). 1793- The Fugitive Slave Act is passed. The Federal Government gave local authorities the power to apprehend and capture any Black person they thought to be a slave and sell them back into slavery. This law applied in both Southern Slave States and Northern Free States. This law was loosely enforced in non-slave states, this applied to slave states as well. Abolitionist (anti-slavery) groups became more developed and organized in this time frame, creating a stronger and more successful Underground Railroad ("The Underground Railroad"). 1794- A man named Eli Whitney created a device called the Cotton Gin. Cotton grew plenty and healthy in the Southern States of the U.S.A and due to that there was already many slaves working on cotton fields; the invention of the Cotton Gin created the demand for increased slave labour ("The Underground Railroad"). 1807- The United Kingdom decreed Slave Trade illegal in all of the British Empire. Canada was underneath British rule from 1763-1867 ("Timeline: The Underground Railroad"). 1808- The importing of African Slaves in the United States was no longer legal, but smuggling carries on ("The Underground Railroad"). 1849- Harriet Tubman escapes slavery, making her a runaway fugitive slave. Harriet Tubman made 19 trips back to the Southern States to escort slaves to freedom and safety in Northern Free States and Canada. She helped as many as 300 slaves to freedom. Her efforts were done over a period of time not all in one year ("The Underground Railroad"). 1850- California became a free state and in exchange for that a harsher Fugitive Slave Act is passed, thus marking this period in time as The Compromise of 1850 between Union and Confederate States. This act stated that slave’s hunters were allowed to capture escaping slaves in any territory or state in America. It was also legislated that any United States Marshall or American citizen who did not capture and arrest a runaway fugitive slave would have to pay a fine of $1 000. The captured slave would be “deported” back to their “rightful” slave owner. This caused anti-slavery groups, also known abolitionists, to fight harder for the freedom of African American slaves and protect the rights of free slaves. Even though this was a dangerous time for the Underground Railroad there was an increased use of the Underground Railroad to reach non-slave states and Canada ("The Underground Railroad"). 1851- Anti-Slavery Society of Canada is founded by George Brown, future Father of Confederation ("Timeline:The Underground Railroad"). 1863- President Abraham Lincoln decrees that slaves in Rebel Territory are free on January 1, 1863.

1865- The Civil War comes to an end after the Confederates surrendered in the April of 1865. The 13th Amendment of the U.S constitution is passed the same year, it abolished slavery in all of the United States of America ("Timeline: The Underground Railroad").

1865- The end of the slavery in America and the end of the Underground Railroad ("The Underground Railroad") http://www.learnnc.org/lp/media/uploads/2009/06/underground_railroad.jpg http://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/thumb/5/51/Undergroundrailroadsmall2.jpg/335px-Undergroundrailroadsmall2.jpg http://www.tntwebs.com/10103552A~Harriet-Tubman-and-the-Underground-Railroad-Posters.jpg http://www.americaslibrary.gov/assets/aa/tubman/aa_tubman_rail_3_e.jpg http://nchumanities.org/sites/default/files/images/Underground%20Map.jpg http://images.wisconsinhistory.org/700001020005/0102000075-m.jpg http://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/thumb/9/96/Harriet_Tubman_by_Squyer,_NPG,_c1885.jpg/200px-Harriet_Tubman_by_Squyer,_NPG,_c1885.jpg http://www.thecanadianencyclopedia.com/media/underground-railroad-6825.jpg The Underground Railroad The purpose, key roles and key locations of the Underground Railroad What was the Underground Railroad? The Underground Railroad was a secret network of routes that stretched all the way from the Southern States of the U.S to the Northern States of the U.S and Canada. People used the North Star as a compass on the various routes of this railroad
This "railroad" was used by enslaved African Americans who hoped to reach freedom
Many slaves worked on cotton plantations, the Underground Railroad helped American slaves escape the horrors that they saw every day on those plantations
The Underground Railroad was mostly and commonly used in the 30 years prior to the American Civil War ("The Underground Railroad")
In America there were two "types" of States, Free States and Slave States
Free states were located in the Northern parts of the United States and they did not support slavery, they were known was the Union. The Union fought against slavery
Slave States were located in the south of the United States and they supported slavery. Southern States were known as the Confederates. Confederates fought to keep slavery ("Confederate States of America")
There were anti-slavery groups in America that organized protests and rallies to abolish slavery; these people were known as abolitionists ("The Underground Railroad")
Teamwork, determination and loyalty was what kept the Underground Railroad functioning and successful in its mission Key Roles in the Underground Railroad For the Underground Railroad to work smoothly there were various jobs given to people
Each of these jobs had a different name to keep the routes of the Underground Railroad a secret from slave hunters
The need for secrecy was crucial for the reason that there were severe penalties for runaway fugitive slaves and anyone who aided them, this applied in Slave States and Free States. These terms were used to confuse slave hunters ("The Underground Railroad")
The term "pilots" were used to specify people who went to the Southern States (slave states) to find slaves that were looking for freedom ("The Underground Railroad")
The term "conductors" were used to specify people who navigated slaves through the various routes of the Underground Railroad, to safety and freedom ( "The Underground Railroad")
The term "passengers" or "cargo" described the slaves that that were using the Underground Railroad
Along the routes of the railroad there were safe houses, which were called "stations" that homeowners and business owners, who were the "station masters", would offer as shelter for fugitive slaves and their conductors to hide ("The Underground Railway")
Once a slave ran away from their owner there were known as runaway fugitive slaves in the eyes of the public and law
Even though it was predominately Black people who helped slaves on their journey, there were also many White people who aided them Conductors were both white and black alike, men and women. Many of these people were Quakers or Methodists ("Underground Railroad")
Quakers are a religious group of people who believed that all people are equal in the eyes of God ("The Abolition Project")
Methodists are a Christian Protestant religious group When these refugees arrived in Canada they settled all across Canada
Most refugees settles in Upper Canada, which is now South Western Ontario (i.e Windsor, Fort Erie, Chatham and Owen Sound) ("Underground Railroad")
These refugees also settled in the Kent and Essex Counties where they established several ex-slave rural communities
Black refugees also helped to develop important British Colonies in Nova Scotia and Vancouver Island. By settling in these distant British Colonies they reduced the risk of being invaded in those areas by the United States, as said by Governor James Douglas who did not support slavery ("Underground Railroad- Effect on Canada")
Even though Canada was a land of freedom for American ex-slaves, racism and discrimination was common . this made finding a job difficult
Most refugees stayed in Canada once slavery was abolished in the United States, but about 20% returned to the U.S.A ("Underground Railroad- Effect on Canada") Settling in Canada Canada was a safe haven in the eyes of man. it was a place where a Black person could be free from slavery and living their lives in constant danger.
Importing slaves into Canada had been illegal since the 1700's, but slavery itself was abolished in the early 1800's ("The Underground Railroad")
The trek to find freedom in Canada was a dangerous one and to many of these refugees the same danger followed them into Canada
There were many cases where slave hunters would follow runaway slaves into Canada and capture them ("The Underground Railroad")
If the slave hunters could not find whoever they were looking for they would take any other Black person to sell into slavery ("Pre-Confederation British North America: Underground Railroad") The Risks that came with Freedom Canada and the Underground Railroad A total of 30 000 American slaves fled to Canada with the help of the Underground Railroad ("Pre-Confederation British North America: Underground Railroad")
The largest group of slave refugees settled in southern Ontario. About 1 000 refugees settled in Toronto.
During the time of the Underground Railroad Canada was underneath British rule, making it a British Colony
There were many anti-slavery societies in Canada that would welcome and support these refugees as they came and settled in Canada ("Pre-Confederation British North America: Underground Railroad")
But with the good there also comes the bad. With every meeting organized by abolition groups there were also many meetings groups who opposed Black immigration into Canada
Some of these groups would openly address that Black refugees and immigrants be sent back ("Pre-Confederation British North America: Underground Railroad")
Canada was known as the North Star on the Underground Railroad Canada's Role in the Underground Railroad http://ftsblog.net/wp-content/uploads/2010/09/Picture-12.png http://www.innovation.ca/sites/innovation.ca.lab.ahundredanswers.com/files/images/impact_stories/main-2009-02-iStock_000003018761Small.jpg http://www.cbc.ca/history/EPCONTENTSE1EP8CH1PA3LE.html http://www.cbc.ca/history/EPCONTENTSE1EP8CH1PA3LE.html http://www3.sympatico.ca/goweezer/canada/canpics/1825a.gif http://cache2.artprintimages.com/LRG/30/3033/LBMBF00Z.jpg http://static.ddmcdn.com/gif/underground-railroad-3.jpg http://27031554.nhd.weebly.com/uploads/1/3/9/5/13955443/6833750.jpg?416 http://www.nwhm.org/media/category/education/activities/anti-slavery%20meeting.gif http://365-guelph.com/wp-content/uploads/2012/02/harriet-tubmans-underground-railroad-paul-collins.jpg http://solidgroundblog.files.wordpress.com/2010/03/underground_railroad_badge_picture.jpg http://vchuah.weebly.com/uploads/1/0/7/3/10730495/469741201_orig.jpg http://www.posterenvy.com/catalog/ss102thumb%20-%20Conductors%20on%20the%20Underground%20Railroad.jpg http://www.historylines.net/img/Photos_2011/big/Underground_Railroad.jpg Key locations in the Underground Railroad Certain locations along the routes of the Underground Railroad were given code names to maintain their secrecy
Detroit was the most common route destination to leave the U.S.A. It was known was "Midnight" ("Underground Railroad").
The Detroit River was known was "Jordan"
The end of the journey was called "Dawn"
The saying "Take the railroad from Midnight to Dawn" could have been used when talking about a route ("The Underground Railroad")
Many cities and towns that were connected with the Underground Railroad were located in the northern states of the U.S ("What were the few routes located along the Underground Railroad?")
More specifically, they were located along the U.S-Canadian border. This region was called "Borderland".
Activity for this railroad was strong in Cincinnati, Oxford and Ripley, Ohio
Active regions in the east of the U.S were in the Chesapeake Bay area in cities such as Baltimore and Philadelphia
Boston, Massachusetts and Rochester, New York were active areas located in the North ("What were the few routes located along the Underground Railroad?")
Many fugitive slaves entered Canada through Ohio and/or New York ("What were the few routes located along the Underground Railroad?") http://1.bp.blogspot.com/-3stkevuDzj8/T4DMrd-bRVI/AAAAAAAAADU/dapho9IJiAA/s1600/underground+rr+map.jpg http://education.nationalgeographic.com/media/photos/000/233/23320.jpg http://jb-hdnp.org/Sarver/Maps/ah14_undergroundrrm.jpg The Faces of Freedom The Key Figures who made the Underground Railroad Successful Important Figures The Underground Railroad wouldn't have been as successful if it weren't for the efforts of each individual who worked to free slaves
People who were involved in the Underground Railroad ranged from ordinary American citizens to politicians to preachers
With all of the people involved in this railroad there were certain prominent figures, White and Black people alike
Two key White participants were Levi Coffin and John Fairfield ("People of the Underground Railroad in Maryland")
Black abolitionist were in more danger and had more to risk by helping fugitive slaves on the Underground railroad, but there were still many courageous Black participants. Harriet Tubman, William Still and John Mason were just a few of these key figures ("People of the Underground Railroad in Maryland") http://www.math.buffalo.edu/~sww/0history/tubman.big.jpg "I was conductor of the Underground Railroad for eight years, and I can say what most conductors can't say – I never ran my train off the track and I never lost a passenger." - Harriet Tubman ("Explore Harriet Tubman") "I had reasoned this out in my mind, there was one of two things I had a right to, liberty or death; if I could not have one, I would have the other." - Harriet Tubman ("Harriet Tubman Quotes") Harriet Tubman Harriet Tubman, birth name Araminta Ross, was born into slavery in 1820 in Maryland, Dorchester County ("Harriet Ross Tubman")
In her early teens she was hit by a two-pound weight while trying to protect a fellow field hand from a furious overseer ("Harriet Tubman")
Due to her injury there were times when Harriet would fall into deep sleeping spells that occurred from time to time. The injury also caused frequent headaches ("Harriet Tubman")
She got married in 1844 to a free Black man named John Tubman, she kept his last name
Out of fear off being sold off her master's plantation farm Harriet planned to runaway to Philadelphia. John Tubman did not have the same views as her on running away and did not plan on going with her. He re-married after Harriet left ("Explore Harriet Tubman")
In 1849 Harriet escaped slavery with the aid of a white abolitionist neighbour
With the assistance of the Anti-Slavery society slavery of Philadelphia, Harriet learned all of the workings of the Underground Railroad ("Harriet Ross Tubman")
In 1850 Harriet Tubman became an official conductor of the Underground Railroad
She made numerous journey, 19 to be exact, to the Southern slave states to rescue sand escort slaves to freedom, she helped as many as 300 slaves escape to Canada and Northern free states
Many people knew of Harriet Tubman as Moses, because she led so many people to freedom ("Harriet Ross Tubman")
Harriet died in 1913, she is still a legend today ("Explore Harriet Tubman") worldtravaillers.wordpress.com http://stufffromthelab.files.wordpress.com/2009/02/tubman_nps.jpg http://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/thumb/a/a9/Levi_coffin.JPG/220px-Levi_coffin.JPG Levi Coffin http://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/en/thumb/5/5f/William_Still_abolitionist.jpg/220px-William_Still_abolitionist.jpg William Still Who was Harriet Tubman? Coston, Barbara Carney. "National Geographic Education." The Underground Railroad: Timeline.
National Geographic, n.d. Web. 26 May 2013.
<http://education.nationalgeographic.com/education/multimedia/interactive/the-
underground-railroad-timeline/?ar_a=1>

Reid, Mark. "Canada's History - Timeline: The Underground Railroad." Timeline: The Underground
Railroad. Canada's History, n.d. Web. 26 May 2013.
<http://www.canadashistory.ca/Magazine/Online-Exclusive/Articles/Timeline-The-
Underground-Railroad>

Coston, Barbara Carney. "The Underground Railroad." The Underground Railroad. National Geographic,
n.d. Web. 26 May 2013.
<http://education.nationalgeographic.com/education/maps/undergroundrailroad/?ar_a=1>

"Black History Canada - Events." Underground Railroad. Black History Canada, n.d. Web. 26 May 2013.
<http://www.blackhistorycanada.ca/events.php?themeid=21&id=6>

"Freedom Center." What Were the Routes Located Along the Underground Railroad. National
Underground Railroad Freedom Center, n.d. Web. 02 June 2013.
<http://www.freedomcenter.org/underground-railroad/history/routes>

"Underground Railroad." CBCnews. CBC/Radio Canada, n.d. Web. 26 May 2013.
<http://www.cbc.ca/history/EPCONTENTSE1EP8CH1PA3LE.html>

"Explore Harriet Tubman." PBS. PBS, n.d. Web. 26 May 2013.
<http://www.pbs.org/black-culture/explore/harriet-tubman/>

"Harriet Tubman." PBS. PBS, n.d. Web. 02 June 2013.
http://www.pbs.org/wgbh/aia/part4/4p1535.html WORKS CITED Questions: 1. How do you think this period in time, as in the Underground Railroad, affected future eras, generations or future events 2. How do you think America and Canada would have been different if slavery didn't exist at all? Do you think the American Civil War, which was revolved around slavery, would have been the same or would have had the same impact that it had on America originally?
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