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Space Race: The Cold War

An insightful look at the relationship between NASA and the Soviet Space Program
by

Elise Ran

on 10 June 2011

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Transcript of Space Race: The Cold War

A Political Cartoon about the Cuban Missile Crisis depicting Kennedy and Khrushchev The Space Race By Elise Ran, Mafalda Borges and Josh Metzman USA USSR Timeline Why Is the Space Race Significant to the Cold War? 1942 - V-2 Missile Nazi missile used in WWII
US and Soviets used it as a starting point for their own rockets
Could travel 150 miles 1946 - R-1 Missile First V-2 missile built in the USSR
Created one year after capturing V-2 parts 1957 - Sputnik I Intercontinental Ballistic Missle (ICBM) launched by the USSR
First man-made object in space
Surprised the world
Made the US more aware of its failing efforts to launch something into space
Started the unofficial 'Space Race' 1957 - Sputnik II Another rocket by the USSR
Carried a dog, Laika, for 7 days
Stayed in orbit for just over four months After the USSR rejected the open skies policy, Eisenhower announced the US was working to build a satellite.
Immediately afterwards, the Soviet Union announced it would build a satellite. 1958 - Explorer I After two failed launch attempts, the US put the their own satellite, the Explorer, in orbit.
While in orbit, it gathered scientific information, including the discovery of the radiation belt. 1958 - Formation of NASA NASA (National Aeronautics and Space Administration), a federal agency devoted to exploring space 1959 - Luna I USSR space craft aimed at the moon
Luna I missed its mark, but was the first space craft to leave the earth's orbit and enter the sun's orbit. 1959 - Pioneer 4 The US attempt to land on the moon
Like the USSR's attempt, it failed and entered solar orbit. 1955 - Satellites Laika inside Sputnik II 1960 - US Spy Satellites Both US and USSR had secret spy space programs.
US launched secret 'Corona' program, hidden in a research program.
Satellites carried cameras strong enough to capture passenger vehicles on the ground. 1961 - Man in Space Russian cosmomaut Yuri Gagarin flew into orbit on Vostok I on April 1st, becoming the first man in space.
This mission beat the US by weeks. 1962 - Cuban Missile Crisis Tensions rose between the US and USSR when satellites discovered nuclear missiles in Cuba.
The near war led to the removal of weapons in Cuba and in Turkey, and the improvement of intelligence gathering operations, including space programs. Conclusion: Why Does it Matter? The Space Race contributed to tensions and competiton between the US and the USSR
The development of reconnaissance satellites led to more clandestine operations in both countries
The threat of nuclear missiles from space only added to the rapid arms race between the Soviets and the Americans
The current American-Russian cooperation in space mirrors the end of the Cold War in recent times
The Space Race created advancements in technology and led to a greater knowledge of space Eisenhower Administration Eisenhower was initially opposed to funding space exploration because he feared the technology could be used for weapons
One writer said Eisenhower "labeled a lunar space race as nothing more than an extravagant stunt"
The US could have launched a satellite before the USSR but Eisenhower did not let it have engines installed for the fourth stage which would have launched it into space
However Eisenhower did approve the bill to develop NASA Kennedy Administration Kennedy believed that in order to compete with the USSR the US must challenge them in the "space race"
"I believe that this nation should commit itself to achieving the goal, before this decade is out, of landing a man on the moon and returning him safely to earth."
May 25, 1961 Kennedy asked Congress to approve a lunar landing program Jupiter C 1969 Lunar Landing V-2 Missile Takeoff NASA Logo NASA Headquarters in DC Unlike the United State’s space approach, Russian launches were not announced in advance, and only successful launches were publicized. A Photo Taken from a Corona Satellite NASA Made by National Aeronautics and Space Act of 1958
Came from NACA (National Advisory Committee for Aeronautics)
Committee developed in 1915 for research in aeronautics namely airplanes
NASA took over operations October 1958
Administration was a response to the launch of the Sputnik 1
Goal was exploration of space for educational purposes Map of Cuba Control Room for the Apollo 11 mission United States vs USSR Photo of the Moon by Luna III Pioneer 4 Luna I A Zenit Satellite on Display In 1958, the political and defense communities had recognized the need for a high-level Department of Defense organization to execute R&D projects and or DARPA.
This was in response to the idea that Russia had become more powerful and capable of launching a nuclear weapon.
On 1958, NASA was created as a response to Sputnik 1.
Increased support for scientific research. By more than 100 million, millions more to education for future engineers
The Polaris missile program (nuclear weapons)
The decision by President John F. Kennedy to launch 1,000 missiles into space to close the missile gap. Legislative Reactions USSR rockets
Luna II was first to reach the moon's surface.
Luna III flew by the moon and photographed it. 1959 - Luna II and Luna III Launching of the Sputnik 1 fueled more fear and competition between the U.S.and the USSR. This is clearly demonstrated by the U.S.'s legislative response.
U.S. was particularly afraid about nuclear capabilities of USSR Sputnik II Sputnik Launch R-1 Missile Neil Armstrong Born August 5, 1930 in Ohio
Worked as an engineer, test pilot, astronaut and administrator for both NACA and then NASA
Commander of Apollo 11
First person to walk on the moon on July 20, 1969
Accompanied by Edwin E. Aldrin The Space Race raised previously existing tensions and competition between the US and USSR and fueled distrust and espionage. Neil Armstrong Soviet Moon Program Vanguard In 1967, the USSR launched Zond
Carried Tortoises to moon
4 previous unsuccesful flights
Canceled in 1970 due to American Space Landing Exploded during launch December 6, 1957
Was meant to challenge Sputnik and learn about space
Showed how behind US was with missile technology "Winners" Sputnik Intensifies Cold War Both sides claim victory
USSR sent the first artificial satellite into orbit, first live thing into space, first person into space, first probe on moon, Mars, and Venus, first multi-person crew in space, and first to make object escape earth's gravity
US sent first person to moon, first successful communication satellite, and first weather satelite Two years after the Americans, the Soviets launched the 'Zenit' program.
Like Corona, the Zenit program was concealed inside a research program.
The Zenit satellites were soon equal in technology to US Satellites. 1962 - Russian Spy Satellites Ham the Chimp First chimpanzee in space
Sent by Americans into space of January 31, 1961
Name is acronym for Holloman Aerospace Medical Center
Learned how to do simple tasks in response to lights and sounds
In three months Alan Shepard becomes the first American in space Disaster in the 60's -Worst disaster in 1960, when toxic fuel spilled from R-16, killing 150 Soviet military personnel
-In 1961, Soviet Union covered up death of a Vostok Cosmonaut
-In 1967, three pilots were suffocated on an Apollo test ground test
-In USSR, engineers presented 200 design faults to their program, though they were ignored
-Both programs neglegted to pay attention to design flaws 1975 - Apollo Soyuz First US and Soviet Union joint venture
The Apollo spacecraft docked on the Soyuz.
The mission lasted for two days and the astronauts ran experiments together.
This marked the end of tension in space between the two countries. Group photo of Apollo pilots who died on ground flight Crews of the Apollo and Soyuz (Left to right: Slayton, Stafford, Brand, Leonov, Kubasov) Zond Mission insignia Commemorative plaque in honor of the international cooperation Sputnik Beeping Sputnik Crisis The American Reaction to Sputnik 1 was known as “The Sputnik Crisis”. Launching of the Sputnik proved that the USSR had a superior space program, because, before this, the U.S. only had two failed satallite launches to show for their efforts. If the Soviet Union was able to launch a Satellite, they would be able to launch a nuclear warhead at the US. This also led to world wide humiliation of the US. Sputnik/Communism Newspaper in 1957 Polaris Missiles Sputnik 1 On July 20th, Neil Armstrong and Buzz Aldrin become the first men to walk on the moon.
To many people, this was the end of the Space Race as the US was technologically years ahead of the USSR.
The USSR and the US had been in a race to get to the moon since 1962. 1969 - Moon Landing
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