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The Continuing Resistance
Transcript of The Continuing Resistance
The Continuing Resistance
Highlights of the Philippine-American War
General Miguel Malvar
He is the general second-in-command to General Mariano Trias, the overall commander of the army in Southern Luzon.
He took part in many different operations of Aguinaldo’s army. But on November 13, 1899, Aguinaldo disbanded his army and formed different guerilla units at Bayambang, Pangasinan.
On Aguinaldo’s capture and the surrender of his successor, General Trias, Malvar was the one who was appointed as the president of the Philippine Republic.
General Vicente Lukban
He was one of Aguinaldo’s generals.
He is the general commanding the forces in Visayas, particularly Samar and Leyte.
On December 31, 1899, he gathered 100 riflemen and he proclaimed himself as the governor of Samar.
On January 1901, American troops landed on Samar and were attacked by Lukban’s bolomen.
Lukban was forced to retreat to the inner island and left an organized resistance.
He is one of the generals of the Philippine Revolution.
He has led many resistance activities against the Americans.
Established a Philippine self-government and the Tagalog Republic.
He was originally a member of Katipunan but was captured afterwards.
After his release, he established the Tagalog Republic on 1902.
Sakay’s guerilla tactics were very effective in capturing American military bases and acquiring additional ammunition.
His missions were even made possible by Filipinos who provided them food and money.
As his movement grew, The Americans initiated search parties to suppress Sakay’s missions.
In 1905, the Americans sent Sakay a letter saying that if the surrender, they would not be punished for their acts. But still Sakay refused to surrender.
On July 1906, Sakay and his men were invited to a dance and later were captured, arrested and were called “bandits”.
On September 13 1907, Sakay and his men were hanged.
The war was the continuation of Philippines’ fight for independence from Spain to United States.
The first phase of the war was Emilio Aguinaldo’s conventional war against the Americans.
The conventional way failed and the second phase, or guerilla warfare, initiated.
The outcome of the war was disastrous. Many lives were lost and tortured in both sides.
The capture of the revolutionary government’s leader only ended a resistance led by him.
Katipunan revolutions still went on since the Bonifacio-led struggle.
Different resistance groups emerged led by Aguinaldo’s generals Miguel Malvar, Vicente Lukban, and leader of the guerillas, Macario Sakay
Resistance groups did not focus in one area. They are spread around the country.
In his leadership, he renamed the Filipino forces as the “Army of Liberation”.
On January 1902, American general James Franklin Bell took command in Batangas where he practiced the scorched earth tactic that affected the guerillas and the innocent citizens.
To end the suffereing of his countrymen, Malvar surrendered to Bell on April 13, 1902.
Lukban punished immediately the people of Samar who worked with the Americans.
General Arthur MacArthur offered him amnesty but turned it down and vowed to fight until the end.
On Aguinaldo’s capture, Samar, under Lukban’s leadership, was one of the remaining resistance groups.
The Americans were harassed constantly by Lukban’s troops.
With the help of two prisoners, the Americans acquired information regarding Lukban’s secret headquarters.
On November 17, 1901, Major Littleton Waller, and Captains Bearss and Porter attacked the headquarters and afterwards succeeded in the assault. There were 30 Filipinos died and Lukban and his lieutenants were captured.