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CSA L2 Core 04 Knowledge of Information, Quantities and Communication With Others

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Andrew Atkin

on 11 September 2017

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Transcript of CSA L2 Core 04 Knowledge of Information, Quantities and Communication With Others

Knowledge of Information, Quantities and Communication With Others
Diploma Brickwork
The aim of this unit is :
The aim of this unit is to provide the learner with the knowledge, in a construction environment, to:
• interpret information
• estimate resources
• communicate effectively with others.

Learning outcomes
1. know how to interpret and produce building information You will be able to:
1.1 state types of information available
1.2 describe how to check information for conformity
1.3 interpret information from specifications
1.4 interpret simple location drawings
1.5 describe how to use equipment to produce drawings
1.6 state the scales used to produce simple location drawings
1.7 explain the purpose of location drawings

1. know how to interpret and produce building information
2. know how to estimate quantities of resources
3. know how to communicate workplace requirements efficiently
Types of information available
One of the key skills in all workplaces is the ability to share knowledge and communicate effectively with the people you work with.

On any one construction project there will be a whole range of different information sources that you will need to be familiar with.

These documents will affect every stage of the construction process, so any changes to them need to be communicated to everyone involved.

Construction projects often have a high budget and the work needs to be carried out to tight deadlines.
Communicating clearly – both face-to-face, but also in written communications – will have a large impact on making sure a team works effectively

Drawings
Drawings are done by the architect and are used to pass on the client’s wishes to the building contractor.
Drawings are usually done to scale because it would be impossible to draw a full-sized version of the project.
A common scale is 1 : 10, which means that a line that’s 10 mm long on the drawing represents 100 mm in real life.
Drawings often contain symbols instead of written words to get the maximum amount of information across without cluttering the page.

Work programmes
A method of showing very easily what work is being carried out when.
The most common form of work programme is a bar chart, listing tasks down the left side and a timeline across the top.
To ensure a job is completed on time
To organise material deliveries when needed
To ensure each trade is scheduled for work on site

Procedures
Procedures are the ways in which a company will go about doing certain tasks.
Larger companies will have procedures for most things such as a procedure for ordering materials, and a procedure for making payments.

Hierarchical charts
This chart shows the level of authority and reporting lines for all people working on site, from the top (most authority) to the bottom (least authority).

Mediation
Mediation occurs after a conflict arises between two or more groups who can’t agree on an outcome.
A mediator is installed to listen to all sides of the debate and try to resolve the conflict by making compromises and changes so that all parties agree.
Before a mediation, both sides often agree to abide with the final decision of the mediator.

Disciplinary
A disciplinary is what employees receive for breaches in company rules. A disciplinary can either be verbal or written, with serious offences leading to termination of employment.
The type of disciplinary procedure used will depend on the offence.
Most companies will run a three strike system wherein you will receive three warnings before you are fired.

Serious breaches such as theft or violence may result in the employee being suspended until an investigation has been carried out.
If the findings state the employee has done what they are accused of, it will lead to instant dismissal.


Specifications
These accompany a drawing and give you the sizes that are not available on the drawing; it also tells you the type of material to be used and the quality that the work has to be finished to.

Manufacturer’s technical information
Everything you buy, whether it is a power tool or a bag of cement, will always come with the manufacturer’s technical information.
This information will list how the component should be used and what its capabilities are.
Power tools often have their technical information provided in a booklet which will give you detailed instructions on how the machine is set up, etc.

Bagged materials such as cement, will normally have information on the bag.
Tins of paint will have the manufacturers information WHERE??
ON THE BACK OF THE TIN
Manufacturers technical information provides detailed information on products

Organisation documentation
No building site functions without paperwork. Some of the key documents include:
timesheets – these record hours worked and are completed by every employee individually. They can be used to work out how many hours the client will be charged for
day worksheets – often confused with timesheets, but different as they are used when there is no price or estimate for the work, to enable the contractor to charge. They record work done, hours worked and sometimes materials used

job sheets – these are used when the work has already been priced and enable the worker to see what needs to be done and the site agent to see what has been completed
l variation orders – used by the architect to make any changes to the original plans, including omissions, alterations and extra works
l confirmation notices – given to the contractor to confirm any changes made in the variation order, so that the contractor can go ahead.

orders/requisitions – used to order materials from a supplier
delivery notes – given to the contractor by the supplier, listing all the materials and components being delivered. Each should be checked for accuracy against the order and the delivery (to ensure what is delivered is correct and that it matches the note)
invoices – these come from a variety of sources and state what services or goods have been provided and the charge for it
delivery records – these list all deliveries over a certain period (usually a month) and are sent to the contractor’s Head Office so that payment can be made

Training and development records
During your training there will be records of what you have been trained in.
These are used at the end as evidence so that you can achieve your qualification.
However, training doesn’t stop as soon as you qualify!

State types of information available including

Drawings

Programmes of work

Procedures

Hierarchical charts

Mediation

Disciplinary

Specifications

Policies

Mission statements

Manufacturers’ technical information
Organisational documentation

Training and development records and documents


Checking information for conformity
As with all documents, the information above needs to be checked for conformity.
Using documents that don’t conform to, or meet, the company’s standards could cause problems, delays or confusion in the building process
Companies would have a quality control system in place to check the conformity.

Location drawings include:
Block plans
. A block plan drawing is used to show the site in relation to its surrounding area
Names of Roads & streets would be found on a Block plan
Site plans.
-used to show the position of building(s) in relation to roads/services
Location plans
. to show the size and position of the various rooms within the buildings

Block Plans
These are used to identify the site in relation to the surrounding area.

Simple Block Plan
Site Plans
These are used to show the position of the proposed building(s) in relation to roads/services.

North Sign
On site plans & block plans, this sign shows the direction of true North.


Location Plans
These are used to show the size and position of the various rooms within the buildings and to position the principal elements and components.

So what is the purpose of Location Drawings?
To give details relative to the surrounding area
To give details of the site layout
To give details of room layout

Common scales used
Equipment used to produce drawings
Set squares
Two set squares are required, a 45° set square and a 60°/30° set square. These are used to draw vertical and inclined lines. A 45° set square (A) is shown in the photograph.
Protractors
Protractors (B) are used for setting out and measuring angles. The maximum angle that can be set/measured is 180° Why is this ????
Compasses and dividers
Compasses (C) are used to draw circles and arcs. Dividers (not shown) are used for transferring measurements and dividing lines

Specification
The specification or ‘spec’ is a document produced alongside the plans and drawings and is used to show information that cannot be shown on the drawings.
The following will be covered by a specification:
Materials supplied,
Material types to be used &
Quality of workman ship

RECAP
1. know how to interpret and produce building information You will be able to:
1.1 state types of information available
1.2 describe how to check information for conformity
1.3 interpret information from specifications
1.4 interpret simple location drawings
1.5 describe how to use equipment to produce drawings
1.6 state the scales used to produce simple location drawings
1.7 explain the purpose of location drawings

Quantities
Next weeks task
In next weeks session we will cover

Estimats
Quotes
Tenders

Area

Volume

2 know how to estimate quantities of resources

Section 2
Estimating Quantities
This section will cover the following learning outcomes:
Interpreting building information
Determining quantities of materials
Communicating information in the workplace

You will be able to:
2.1 compare different methods used to estimate quantities of materials needed in a construction project
2.2 describe the systems in place for deciding what materials should be used and where they can be purchased
2.3 compare estimated labour rates for different construction projects
2.4 define the difference between quoting, estimated pricing and the tender process
2.5 describe the implications of inaccurate estimates

AREA
The area of a two-dimensional (2-D; flat) shape is the amount of space it covers.
Area is measured in square units, e.g. square centimetres (cm2) and square metres (m2).




Linear
-a measure of length only.
Skirting boards, door frames, Dado rail, picture rail, wallpaper boarder
Linear measurement involves series of lengths only
Methods used to calculate basic material quantities
Perimeter - The perimeter of a shape is the distance all around the outside of the shape. To find the perimeter of a shape, measure all the sides and then add the lengths together.
The formula for calculating the perimeter of a building is:
2(length+ Breadth)

Volume
Volume is the amount of space taken up by a 3-D or solid shape.
Volume is measured in cube units such
as mm3, cm3, m3.
V = l × w × h
Concrete,bricks

Formulas
Area of a rectangle = length x width.
Area of a circle = πr 2
The area of a triangle = ½ x h x b
The formula for calculating the perimeter of a building is:
2(length+ Breadth)

Construction measurement
What measurements are used in construction measurements and calculations?
Millimetres, centimetres and meters are all used in construction measurement and calculations.


Determining quantities of materials
The information contained in the drawings and specification for a project will tell you what materials you will need for the job.
You will use this information to determine the quantity of each type of material you will need.

Deciding what materials to use
The materials used for the job will depend solely on what the architect agrees with the client.
Larger companies will have an agreement with suppliers so that they can order all their materials with them at a discounted rate.

Estimating labour rates
Day work/hourly rate
This rate is used when the tradesperson will be paid a specific amount for every hour that they work.
The amount will depend on where the work is being carried out as the cost of living is different in each area.

Day work/hourly rate
Places where the cost of living is low may receive £10–£20 per hour.
In areas with a high cost of living (such as London) the rate may be £20–£30 per hour.
The experience of a worker will also affect the day work rate.
Newly qualified Level 2 apprentices will not be paid the same as someone with 30 years of experience.

Price work
This rate is used when the tradesperson will be paid for the work they carry out. Examples of this include a carpenter who receives £20 for every door they hang or a painter who gets £300 for every flat they decorate. This method is often preferred, though it means that you may have to work harder. However, the more work you do, the more you will earn.

Again, the prices for these will vary not only from area to area but also within trades.
A carpenter may get paid £2000 to fit a truss roof but only £250 to fit a small kitchen in a flat.
A painter may get paid £15 to paint the inside of a window compared with £20 to paint the outside. These differences in price are worked out prior to the job starting and take into account things such as weather or hazards.
The roof may look like the best job at £2000, but if it is raining heavily for a week, or alterations to the scaffold are required, you may not get much work done. You may be able to fit seven kitchens in a week no matter what the weather.

The price work method is calculated by working out how many hours it will take to complete the task and then giving a certain price based on the day work rate.
For example, the day work rate may be £20 per hour and a roof should take 100 hours. This means a price of £2000 will be put forward.

Labour rates may increase
Due to:
Lots and lots of work needing doing

Not enough skilled workers

High volume of work, shortage of skilled operatives

The Tender process
Tendering is a competitive process where the contractor works with a specification and drawings from the client and submits a cost estimate for the work (including materials, labour and equipment).
Tenders are often invited for large contracts such as Government contracts, with strict fixed deadlines for the tenders to be received.

Submission of a tender for a contract?
Closed bid
Date for return
Time of opening bids
Bill of quantities
A quantity surveyor prepares this document. As the name suggests, it contains a description and the measurement of quantities, labour and any other items required to carry out the work. All the work is measured from the working drawings, specification and schedules.
The same bill of quantities is sent out to all prospective contractors so they can submit a tender based on the information – this helps the client select the best contractor for the job.

Quoting
A quote is basically part of the tender process but it will only contain pricing information on materials, labour, etc. The quote will state how much the job will cost without any additional information that may appear on a tender such as using a percentage of the local work force or recycling a certain amount of materials.
The quote is then used as part of the tender to give an idea of the potential cost of a job. Companies submitting tenders will look to make this quote as attractive as possible to the client.

Estimated pricing
Estimated pricing is used to create the quote. An estimator will look at what is required and provide an estimated price for it.

Tenders for jobs may take many months for the successful tender to be selected so an estimator who prices everything up exactly as it is now may be wrong in six months time as the price of labour or materials may have changed.
This means they will give an estimated price instead, based on a calculation of how much the materials or labour may cost in the future.

Predicting waste
When working out what materials you require to complete a job it is advisable to add on a certain amount to your calculations for material waste.
This is necessary because if you order the exact amount you require you are not considering any offcuts or damages to the material. When cementing or plastering, not all the plaster will go on the wall. Some will fall on the floor and some may go off too quickly if you mix up too much to use in one day.

It is generally accepted that between 5% and 10% is added on to the total to allow for waste.
For adding on a percentage you simply need to divide the amount by 100 and then multiply by 100 + whatever the percent is.


Inaccurate estimates of material quantities would:
Cost a contractor time
Cost a contractor money
Extend the time for the job

What will affect an estimated price for a job?
Change of specification- things changed costing more money
Wages increase-leading to the price going up
Increased cost of fuel/transport-again would an more money onto the estimated price

Specification
The specification or ‘spec’ is a document produced alongside the plans and drawings and is used to show information that cannot be shown on the drawings.
The following will be covered by a specification:
Materials supplied,
Material types to be used &
Quality of workman ship

You will be able to:
2.1 compare different methods used to estimate quantities of materials needed in a construction project
2.2 describe the systems in place for deciding what materials should be used and where they can be purchased
2.3 compare estimated labour rates for different construction projects
2.4 define the difference between quoting, estimated pricing and the tender process
2.5 describe the implications of inaccurate estimates including volumes, weights, quantities and simple house construction

Communications
Methods of communication
Next weeks session will focus on communication
Full transcript