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RISE AND DEVELOPMENT OF
Transcript of RISE AND DEVELOPMENT OF
What aspects of a totalitarian/authoritarian government did you see in Oceania? Use Friedrich and Brzezinski's definition as a base for this.
What is the role of history in 1984?
"Who controls the present controls the past, who controls the past, controls the future". Reflect on the significance of this quote.
What are some themes in the story? How do they relate to the plot and characters?
Do you find the characters likable? Would you want to meet the characters?
Does the story end the way you expected? How? Why?
What is the role of women in the text? Is love relevant? Are relationships meaningful?
Why is 1984 controversial?
Can you relate the book to any current political/societal issues?
What is Doublethink? How does it relate to "War is Peace? Ignorance is Strength? Freedom is Slavery?"
Can History be rewritten? Should it be? For background, see page 176: “Thus history is continuously rewritten.”
Place the book on a historical timeline. What happened before the book was published? What has happened since? Discuss: Which of Orwell’s predictions have become a part of history, not only in communist countries but in the free world?
Was Orwell right to worry about the future?
WHEN LOOKING AT AUTHORITARIAN STATES, WE NEED TO CONSIDER...
Origins & nature of authoritarian/single party states
Conditions that produce authoritarian/single-party states
Emergence of leaders: aims, ideology, support
Establishment of authoritarian & single party states
Methods: forced, legal
Form of government, left and right wing ideology
Nature, extent, and treatment of opposition
Totalitarianism: the aim and the
extent to which it was achieved
Domestic policies and impact
Structure & organization of government & administration
Political, economic, social, and religious policies
Role of education, the arts, the media, propaganda
Status of women, treatment of
religious groups & minorities
Authoritarian, Propaganda, Censorship, Dictator, Oligarchy, One-Party State, Totalitarianism, Plutocracy, Secret Police, Martial Law, Police State, Military Dictatorship, Coercion, Left, Right, Consent, Nationalist. Socialist, Coup d'etat, Prison Camps, Theocracy, Political Platform, Ideology, Enemies of the State, Surveillance, Political Party, Popular Revolution, Purge
WHAT IS TOTALITARIANISM?
“Everything within the state, nothing outside the state, nothing against the state."
In what ways was the public image of the Nazi Party different than the reality of the Nazi Party? List at least four ways.
Who were the first victims of the Nazi concentration camps?
“It is impossible for somebody in ‘33 to look ahead to ‘45... you can’t... it’s only 12 years, but it seems to be too much”
-Manfred von Schroder, German Diplomat and Nazi Party member. To what extent do you agree with this in regards to the treatment of Jews?
What were the reasons for and the outcomes of the Night of the Long Knives?
According to the video, how were decisions often made within the Nazi Party?
What, according to the video, was the problem with the Nazi economic recovery?
What was the purpose of the Nuremberg Laws?
What, according to the video, allowed the Gestapo to do its work?
How would you describe Resi Kraus’ reaction to the allegation that she wrote a letter denouncing Ilse Totske?
What were the reasons for and outcomes of the Kristallnacht?
To what extent can the German people be held responsible for the crimes of the Nazis?
Should people be judged harshly for not standing up to the regime?
How did the layout of the new Reichstag building show the nature of the structure of the Nazi Party?
How did the Nazi euthanasia program originate?
The Nazis: a Warning From History
“Chaos and Consent” Questions
Fill in the answers on the worksheet
PAST AUTHORITARIAN QUESTIONS
Slightly Different definitions from Historians
Most agree: seek to mobilize the entire populations to support state ideology, intolerant of activities that are not directed towards the goals of the state, and entails state control or repression of business, labor unions, churches, and political parties
Critics have attacked Brzezinski for leaving out the revolutionary aspect of totalitarian regimes, insisting one person must be in charge, and for applying the term to regimes that have been too disorganized to meet the definition.
What is an Authoritarian State?
Common Question: To what extent was ______________ successful in achieving a totalitarian state?
ASSIGNMENT: On an A3 paper, draw a detailed version of VSA as a totalitarian state. Who is the dictator? Who are the secret police? What measures have they instituted to keep complete control? How do they exercise censorship? What does the propaganda look like? What happens to enemies of the state?
More Social Control
More Economic Control
More Personal Freedom
More Property Rights
What are the characteristic traits of a totalitarian state?
Why do Friedrich and Brzezinski claim they cannot explain the rise of tot. states?
Do you think anyone can definitively say what causes totalitarianism? Why or why not? How does this relate to TOK?
What theories concerning the rise of authoritarian states do F and B mention? What is the problem with each theory?
F E A R and U N C E R T A I N T Y
AUTHORITARIAN STATES OFFER
AND AN END TO THE CRISIS
PAPER 2 & AUTHORITARIAN STATES
Problems with defining Totalitarianism
BBC's In Our Time looked at the difficulty of explaining the crimes of Hitler's Germany. In the first 9 minutes of the show, the host, along with historians Niall Ferguson, Ian Kershaw, and Mary Fulbrook, explore the difficulty in defining totalitarianism. Listen to those 9 minutes by following the link below and answer the questions.
1. How would each of the historians define totalitarianism?
2. Is there argument as to when totalitarianism began? If so, why? If not, what do the historians agree on?
3. Do you think the differences in definitions matters? What are the implications of accepting one over another?
4. Imagine you were tasked with writing an introduction to an essay prompt "To what extent did Hitler achieve a totalitarian state?". How might you incorporate the ambiguity of the term "totalitarian" into your writing?
WHAT WAS CHINA'S CRISIS?
Emergence of Mao
THE COMMUNISTS IN POWER
GREAT LEAP FORWARD
HUNDRED FLOWERS BLOOM
THE GREAT PROLETARIAN
LIFE UNDER MAO
Mao Zedong : Qing Dynasty : Sino-Japanese War (1895) : Boxer Rebellion : Taiping Rebellion : Spheres of Influence : Sun Yatsen/Sun Yixian : 3 Principles of the People : Kuomintang/Guomindang (KMY/GMD) : 1911 Revolution : Yuan Shikai : Republic of China : May Fourth Movement : Chinese Communist Party (CCP) : Paris Peace Conference : Warlords : Chiang Kai Shek/ Jiang Jieshi : Marxism : Guerrilla : Futian Incident : The Long March : Yanan : Red Army : Peasants : Landlords : Usury : Repression : Maoism : Dialectic : Bourgeois : 28 Bolsheviks : On New Democracy : Li Lisan : Wang Ming : Rectification of Conduct Campaign : Revolutionary Correctness : revisionist : reactionary : Democratic Centralism : 'the great helmsman' : Japanese Occupation : Xian Incident : Chinese Civil War : People's Liberation Army (PLA) : Taiwan : People's Republic of China : United Front: Second Sino Japanese War : Zhou Enlai : Manchukuo : Comintern : People's Liberation Army : Chairman : Party Secretary : "Reunification Campaigns : Tibet : The anti-movments : Anti-Landlord Campaign : Purges : Rightists : 100 Flowers Campaign : Five Year Plan : Collectives : communes : collectivization : Great Leap Forward : Cultural Revolution : Reactionaries : revisionism : The Cult of Mao : The Little Red Book : August Rally : Red Guards : Rebels : struggle sessions : Gang of Four : Central Cultural Revolution Group : corrective labor : cleansing the class ranks : laogai : Lin Biao : Liu Shaoqi :Jiang Qing : Deng Xioping : Four Olds : Central Cultural Revolution Group : Patriotic Churches : Uighur, Kazakh, Hui, and Kirghiz peoples : Xinjiang :
The People's Democratic Dictatorship
How does Mao define The People’s Democratic Dictatorship?
What does Mao say will happen to reactionaries in China?
What is the formula Mao believes will lead China to socialism?
Do you believe a dictatorship can be democratic? Why/why not?
Make a list of five vocabulary terms with definitions that would help someone understand this reading?
WHY WERE THE CHINESE COMMUNISTS POPULAR WITH THE PEASANTRY?
AN INEFFECTIVE, FOREIGN QING
INCREASING FOREIGN DOMINATION
What factors are necessary to make a rural based revolution succeed? Rank these factors and discuss their relative importance. Is anything missing?
bad harvests : landlordism : poverty : market collapse : nationalism : education : arms : military strategy : leaders from outside : leaders from within
How does each of the above factors play a role in the Chinese Revolution?
Imperialism and Warlords were still problems after 1911
THE NORTHERN EXPEDITION
SUN YATSEN/SUN YIXIAN
CHIANG KAI SHEK/JIANG JIESHI
MAO TSE TUNG/MAO ZEDONG
Called for massive restructuring of society
Inspired by Russian Revolution
Harder to define. Different things at different times.
3 Principles: Nationalism, Democracy, Livelihood
Open to Westernization
Chiang, more fascist, less socialist
May 4th Movement (1919)- massive protests.
Sun needed a military to fight the warlords.
The Soviets were the only ones to offer help, with the condition that Soviet advisers be allowed into China.
In 6 months, 34 warlords were defeated.
Chiang was wary of communists, who attacked religious traditions and were anti-landlord.
He purged the communists in 1927 in Shanghai. Thousands executed and unions banned.
Chiang open to the west and modernization programs in medicine and transport.
But communists began to rebuild support in cities where child labor was rampant and hours were long.
Chiang believed he needed to stamp out the communists for good through a series of military offenses.
Nationalist/Communist army launched the Northern Expedition
"The Long March": A Poem by Mao Zedong
The Red Army fears not the trials of the Long March
And thinks nothing of a thousand mountains and rivers.
The Wuling Ridges spread out like ripples;
The Wumeng Ranges roll like balls of clay.
Warmly are the cliffs wrapped in clouds washed by the Gold Sand;
Chilly are the iron chains lying across the width of the Great Ferry.
A thousand acres of snow on the Min Mountain delight
My troops who have just left them behind.
— Mao Zedong, September 1935
From David L. Weitzman, Mao Tse-tung and The Chinese Revolution.
Evaluate the above source. discuss the values and limitations based on its origin and purpose.
Using online research and Edgar Snow's account of the Long March, map the route of the Long March on the map. Add in details about key battles, events, and important geographic features.
What were the results of the Long March? To what extent was it a success for the Communists?
Imagine you are Mao and write a poem about the Long March from his perspective as a piece of propaganda. (12-15 lines)
Swap papers and use the peer evaluation form to give the writer feedback on their work.
Evaluate 2 papers.
Use the feedback to revise your own work and resubmit.
Use the sources and your own knowledge
Make an audio recording of a phone message from a Soviet Communist to Mao concerning Mao's interpretation of Marxism
How and why did the Chinese Communists defeat the Nationalists in the Chinese Civil War, 1945-49?
DEBATE: TO WHAT EXTENT DID MAO ACHIEVE A TOTALITARIAN STATE?
Was the Campaign just a ruse?
Read pages 124-126 in the text. Familiarize yourself with the historical interpretations and come to a conclusion as to whether you think it was a ruse or not. Write a brief response in your Evernote.
What was the goal of the Great Leap Forward? How was this change to be achieved?
How was farm work made exciting?
What was life like on the communes? How was life different than before?
How was steel made? What was the problem with the way the steel was made?
What was the problem with the methods used to increase agricultural production?
Why did so few people speak out against the unrealistic targets set on agricultural production?
Why was inflating (making numbers higher than they actually are) the grain output figures so disastrous?
Who would inflate the numbers and why?
Where would the food produced by the peasants end up?
Why weren’t new production targets set by the government?
How many people died in the famine caused by the Great Leap Forward?
The Mao Years Video Questions
Compare & contrast these sources.
Read the scanned chapters on the Weebly from Tombstone.
WHY WERE THE YOUTH SO EAGER TO TAKE PART?
PARANOIA & EGO
Adolph Hitler : NSDAP : Weimar : Treaty of Versailles : Diktat : Reparations : Chancellor : Reichstag : Reich : Kaiser : Left : Right : Communists : Freikorps : White Emigres : Spartacists : Rosa Luxembourg : SA/Brownshirts : Proportional Representation : Mein Kampf : Ernst Rohm : Volk : Beer Hall Putsch : Hyper-Inflation Dawes Plan : Aryan : Ludendorff : Lebensraum : Fuhrer Principle: Primacy of Struggle : Purity of Blood : Otto Strasser : Union of Revolutionary Socialists : Hindenburg : Franz von Papen : KPD : SPD : Kurt von Schliecher : Hienrich Bruning : Protest Vote : Enabling Bill : Enabling Act : Reichstag Fire : Joseph Goebbels : Marinus van der Lubbe : NSDAP : Night of the Long Knives : Gleichschaltung : Schutstaffel/SS : Gauleiters : Heinrich Himmler : concentration camps : Death's Head Diviision : Gestapo : Waffen SS : Wehrmacht : the Army Oath : Werner von Blomberg : Vernor von Fritsch : Hermann Goering : Alfred Rosenberg : Martin Bormann : "Working Towards the Fuhrer" : Nazi-Soviet Pact : Schwartz Kapelle : Helmut von Moltke : Claus von Stauffenberg : July Plot : White Rose: Sophie Scholl : Hans Scholl : General Ludwig Beck : Kreisau Circle : show trials : Edelweiss : Hitler Youth : Swingjugend : Dietrich Bonlooeffer : Clemens von Galen : Confessional Church : Bernhard Lichtenberg : T4 Euthenasia Program : Anschluss : Hjalmar Schacht : Four Year Plan : The New Plan : autarky : Third Reich : Albert Speer : Leni Riefenstahl : Nuremberg Rallies : Eher Verlag : Deutsches Nachrichtenburo : Berlin Olympics : Jesse Owens : Editor's Law : Richard Wagner : Martin Heidegger : Reich Radio Company : Eugenics : Baldur von Schirach : Bernhard Rust : League of Gennan Maidens : Kraft durch Freude : German Labour Front : National Socialist Womanhood : Land Year Program : "sublime task" : Sterilization Program : defectives : Jews : Gypies : Homosexuals : Final Solution : anti-Semitism: Nuremberg Laws : special treatment : Holocaust: Kristallnacht : extermination camps : Dachau : Treblinka: Chelmo : Auschwitz : Joseph Mengele : Jehovah's Witnesses : Black Germans : Rudolph Hoess : Reinhard Heidrich : einsatzgruppen : Wansee Conference :
'Mao planned it, launched it and had a greater hand in directing it than anyone else'
The cultural revolution was also an indirect attack on the party leadership. Mao 'step by step he took apart the top ranks of the party before launching the cultural revolution'
'Mao pulled the pin on a grenade that he did not make alone, and whose effects no one could surely predict.'
Fascism repudiates Pacifism. Conflict makes men great.
Summary of "What is Fascism?"
by Benito Mussolini
It is the opposite of Marxist Socialism- denies class conflict as the shaper of history.
Believes in holiness and heroism. Men are best judged in a life and death situation.
Denies the economic conception of history.
Denies that the majority can, or should, direct human society.
Believes in the fruitful and beneficial inequality of mankind. Idea of political equality absurd
People and state needs authority, direction, and order.
Growth of empire. The renunciation of imperialism is a sign of weakness. An empire demands discipline.
Leaves the people some liberty, but not harmful ones (freedom of press and speech). All important decisions belong to the state.
State as an absolute- individuals are only viewed in relation to the state
Severe measures against those who oppose the state.
Read the NSDAP 25 Point Program from 1920. Where do you see similarities with Mussolini's "What is Fascism?". Where do you see differences?
USE THE DOCUMENTS TO ANSWER THE FOLLOWING QUESTION
THE NAZIS: A WARNING FROM HISTORY:
HELPED TO POWER
Using the data from the chart, graph the supports for each of the German political parties alongside the figures for German unemployment. What pattern emerges?
As we watch the video, complete a chart with examples of how the Nazis were "helped to power" and examples of how they "pushed themselves to power".
Factors outside of Nazi control that played a role in their ascent to power.
Factors within Nazi control that played a role in their ascent to power.
CONSOLIDATING & MAINTAINING POWER
Oftentimes harder to maintain control than establish it
Blend of Attraction & Repression, Love & Fear
Attraction/Love: Follow through on promises, institute popular policies, utilize propaganda.
Repression/Fear: Eliminate opposition through Force & Legal Methods
If you were a leader, would you rather be loved or feared?
This gives rise to an argument: whether it is better to be loved than feared, or the opposite. The answer is that one would like to be both, but since it is difficult to combine the two it is much safer to be feared than loved, if one of the two has to make way. For generally speaking, one can say the following about men: they are ungrateful, inconsistent, feigners and dissimulators, avoiders of danger, eager for gain, and whilst it profits them they are all yours. They will offer you their blood, their property, their life and their offspring when your need for them is remote. But when your needs are pressing, they turn away. The prince who depends entirely on their words perishes when he finds he has not taken any other precautions. This is because friendships purchased with money and not by greatness and nobility of spirit are paid for, but not collected, and when you need them they cannot be used. Men are less worried about harming somebody who makes himself loved than someone who makes himself feared, for love is held by a chain of obligation which, since men are bad, is broken at every opportunity for personal gain. Fear, on the other hand, is maintained by a dread of punishment which will never desert you.
— The Prince, Niccolo Machiavelli (translation Stephen J. Milner)
HOW DID THE NAZIS USE LOVE TO CONSOLIDATE THEIR POWER?
PROPAGANDA & THE NAZI STATE
Support in Percentage
in order to solidify the power of the party and state.
pass laws, change policies, control the justice system. Make it difficult for your opponents to operate legally
intimidation, arrests, threats, fear, indefinite imprisonment, beatings, executions
FROM OUTSIDE THE PARTY
rivals for leadership
THE THIRD REICH IN POWER
Use the reading to examine how the Third Reich used terror to solidify & maintain its control over Germany.
Make specific references to the potential sources of opposition from the previous slide.
"The essence of propaganda consists in winning people over to an idea so sincerely, so vitally, that in the end they succumb to it utterly and can never escape from it."
"Propaganda is not an end in itself, but a means to an end. If the means achieves the end then the means is good...the new Ministry has no other aim than to unite the nation behind the ideal of the national revolution."
NAZI MINISTER OF PROPAGANDA
WHAT WERE THE "INSTUMENTS OF TERROR" UTILIZED BY THE NAZIS TO SOLIDIFY CONTROL? MAKE A MIND MAP OF THE INSTUMENTS, DEFINING AND EXPLAINING HOW THEY WERE USED TO CREATE AN OBEDIENT CITIZENRY. GIVE SPECIFIC EXAMPLES
The Night of the Long Knives: dealt with the unruly and unpopular SA while earning the loyalty of the Army.
TREATMENT OF MINORITIES
WOMEN & THE NAZI STATE
Schwartz Kapelle : Helmut von Moltke : Claus von Stauffenberg : July Plot : White Rose: Sophie Scholl : Hans Scholl : General Ludwig Beck : Kreisau Circle : show trials : Edelweiss : Hitler Youth : Swingjugend : Dietrich Bonlooeffer : Clemens von Galen : Confessional Church : Bernhard Lichtenberg :
Clemens von Galen
Claus von Stauffenberg
Helmuth von Moltke
German women not seen as equal to German men. They had distinctly different roles within society.
German women: "take hold of the frying pan, dust pan and broom and marry a man."
... and have children.
Every SS man was expected to have a wife and produce at least children.
Ideally children would be with a wife, but not frowned upon to have children out of wedlock.
Lebensborn: Organization set up to provide for illegitimate children and their mothers.
"Racially pure" women who had 4 or more children would be awarded the Cross of Honor of the German Mother"
Abortion was punished
Marriages only allowed between Aryans
Diseased or handicapped not allowed to marry or have children.
Organizations set up to promote German ideal women: BDM, National Socialist Women's Union
War necessitated change- women encouraged to work in industry and become members of the auxiliaries during the war.
WAS HITLER A
HOW DID STALIN COME TO CONTROL THE SOVIET UNION?
October Revolution : Marxists : Bolsheviks : Dialectic : Secretariat: Coucil of People's Commissars : Politburo : Democratic Centralism : asolutism : tsars : CPSU : Cheka : Factionalism : Show Trials : Purges : Social Revolutionaries : New Economic Policy : Comintern : Orgburo : Patronage : People's Commissar for Nationalities : Workers' and Peasants' Inspectorate : General secretary of the Communist Party : Lenin Enrollment : Leon Trotsky : Red Army : Russian Civil War : War Communism : Whites : Lenin's Testament : Triumvirate : Nepmen : rightists : leftists : Bukharin : Tomsky : Rykov : Zinoviev : Kamenev : Collectivization : State Procurements : Soviets : Vozhd : Premier : Molotov : Bureaucratization : Modernization : Collective Farms : Kulaks : De-Kulakization : OGPU : Ukraine Famine : Gosplan : Industrialization : First Five Year Plan : Second Five Year Plan : Third Five Year Plan : Light Engineering : Sergei Kirov : NKVD : Great Terror : Decree Against Terrorist Acts : Ryuitin Affair : Party card : Gulag : Genrikh Yagoda : Lavrenti Beria : Stalin Enrollment : the Great Fatherland War : the Doctor's Plot : Socialist Realism : Soviet Union of Writers : alexander Solzhenitsyn : Vsevolod Mayerhold : Sergei Eisenstein : Total Theatre : Boris Pasternak : Dmitri Shostakovich : Cult of Personality : Stakhanovite Movement : Konsomol : May Day : Seminaries : Icons : Nomenklatura : Intelligentsia : Packets : Neopatriarchal :
THE ECONOMY UNDER
NATIONALISM, DEMOCRACY, LIVELIHOOD
Wanted to lead a revolution against the world join the world, much as the Japanese had done.
One of Sun Yat Sen's pupils allies.
Head of the Whapoa Military Academy.
Became the leader of the KMT in 1928 following Sun's death.
More socially conservative than Sun, rejecting democracy, individualism, and liberalism.
Promoted traditional Chinese morals mixed with aspects of authoritarianism and even fascism.
Western educated. Considered the father of modern China.
CHINA: A CENTURY OF REVOLUTION
PART I: 1911-1949
Translations: Fukien= Fujian, Shensi= Shaanxi, Kiangsi= Jiangxi, Kweichow= Guizhou, Kwangtung= Guangdong, Hupeh= Hubei, Tsunyi= Zunyi
Read the selection by R. Cavendish.
What questions do Historians disagree on when it comes to the Long March?
What ultimate conclusion does Cavendish come to on the Long March?
Watch Part II: Fighting for the Future (57:00-1:53:00)
What evidence is there in the video that the Communists were responsible for winning the Civil War?
What evidence is there in the video that the Nationalists were responsible for losing the Civil War?
What role did American intervention play in the war?
Mao is viewed by many as a masterful strategic leader who adapted policy and tactics to lead the Communists to victory in the Chinese Civil War.
He was able to attract many recruits in Yanan by introducing land reform. When he sensed the land reform was getting out of hand and creating backlash, he adjusted policies to become more moderate.
He instituted strict Red Army codes of conduct so that soldiers would not create backlash against the Communists and their cause.
Mao banned traditional Chinese practices against women.
He knew when and how to clamp down on opposition to his policies.
Communists took a strong anti-Japanese stance and fashioned their propaganda successfully.
Mao also did a good job vilifying Chiang Kai Shek for not attacking the Japanese
Communists focused on solidifying control of the countryside and keeping the peasant population devoted to the Communist cause. With this came access to food.
Mao developed the idea of mobile defense to deal with Nationalist strategies in 1945.
Goal was to harass Nationalist forces to destroy their will to fight, along with sabotaging & ambushing supply lines to make an overextended enemy more vulnerable.
Mao also knew when to adapt this strategy or abandon it, as he did during the brief American negotiated truce. During this time, Mao had Lin Biao reorganize and train his soldiers to use more tradional, large scale tactics using artillery.
Mao also ordered all captured Nationalist soldiers be incorporated into the Communist forces. He encouraged defectors with promises of good treatment & food. This contributed to an increase in manpower where the once severally outnumbered Communists overtook the Nationalist forces in size by 1948. This contributed to the offensives launched in the Huai-Hai & Pingjin Campaigns.
In 1945, it seemed as though the Nationalists winning the Chinese Civil War was a logical conclusion. They outnumbered the Communists, had international support, and control of major cities.
Many historians have argued that the Nationalists squandered these advantages due to poor leadership and corruption under Chiang Kai Shek.
Corruption within the Nationalist ranks was rampant. Vast sums of money meant to aid the war effort made its way into Party members' accounts. Chiang did little to stop this.
Chiang oftentimes prioritized the Communist threat over the Japanese. This was a decision which many, even members of the Nationalist cause, disagreed.
This, combined with the fact that Chiang often traded space for time in regards to the Japanese threat, made it look as if he were not willing to fight the foreigners. This lost him support.
This is exemplified by the Xian Incident, when his own generals had him kidnapped and forced him into a United Front with the Communists.
Chiang also arguably put too much faith in the idea that the Americans would help militarily and economically. The Americans, however much they helped with supplies, often preferred a truce between the fighting parties.
Chiang's hope that American soldiers would help him fight the Japanese, and eventually the Communists, on the mainland dashed by the use of the atomic bombs and the Japanese surrender.
Strategically Chiang made many mistakes. He often overextended his forces, leaving his armies vulnerable to ambush and sabotage. This was the case in both Manchuria and the Strongpoint Offensive.
He often would divert soldiers before securing areas, as he did when he diverted soldiers to Manchuria before securing northern China.
Chiang was also hurt by his inability to stabilize the Chinese currency and secure access to food supplies for the people in the cities.
American advisors like Joseph Stilwell were extremely dissatisfied with Chiang's leadership. Chiang refused to heed calls by Stilwell to quash corruption and change strategies.
"During Northern expedition they had been given flowers and food. During the war against Japan, the people gave them intelligence and safe harbor. During the war against the communists, we could not even get road directions.”
-Nationalist soldier describing the Chinese people
Create one political cartoon with the viewpoint that it was Communist actions most responsible for the outcome of the Civil War and one political cartoon with the viewpoint that it was Nationalist mistakes most responsible for the outcome of the Civil War
What did the Party encourage peasants to do in order to get more land?
What did people do to their landlords?
Who were the leaders (give specific people) of the Communist Party during the 1950s? Give one characteristic of each leader.
What country did Mao look to for support? Why?
Who were the “enemies without guns”?
Why did Mao decide to have soldiers cross into the Korean conflict?
What good things happened as a result of forming cooperatives?
Why did peasants dislike the collectives?
What was the purpose of the “100 Flowers Bloom” campaign? What
happened to the people who took part in it?
What was the anti-rightist movement? What were struggle meetings?
Why was Russian leader Nikita Khrushchev furious with Mao?
Agricultural, Social, Political, & International Policy 1949-58
Watch the Mao Years video and answer the questions below.
Look over the paragraphs from Roderick MacFarquhar's
Mao's Last Revolution.
What does each paragraph tell us about Mao's motivations for implementing the Great Proletarian Cultural Revolution in the mid-1960s?
Work in groups to come up with the reasons the Cultural Revolution was implemented. Which strikes your group as the most plausible explanation?
“I want to exploit film as an instrument of propaganda.”
Dr. Joseph Goebbels, Minister for Public Enlightenment and Propaganda
“It is possible by means of shrewd and unremitting propaganda to make people believe that heaven is hell—and hell heaven.”
Adolf Hitler, Mein Kampf
“The Fuhrer above all! Above the tremendous symphony of crowds, marching
columns, meetings, commemorations, marches and congresses: his words on
the present—for the future.”
Leni Riefenstahl, 1935
“...(T)here rises above the basic motif of this victorious title (Triumph of the
Will) a film from the German present—a triumphal procession of the
knowledge, courage, and strength to fight and to win for our German people.
A heroic film of fact: in the will of the Fuhrer his people triumph.”
Leni Riefenstahl, 1935
1934, the year of the 8th Party Rally in Nuremberg, was a very significant year for the fledgling Nazi state.
JUNE 30–The Night of the Long Knives—Roehm and the SA are eliminated as a power source. Hitler is supreme.
AUGUST 2–President Hindenberg dies.
AUGUST 19–National referendum in which Hitler is confirmed as Furhrer and Chancellor of the Reich, Head of State, and Supreme Commander of the Army. 90% voted approval of Hitler’s usurpation of complete power.
These successes culminated and were celebrated in a massive and impressive ceremonial rally in Nuremberg in September.
HITLER AS MESSIAH
GERMANY DESTINED FOR GREATNESS
Review pages 89-94 of your Hodder text dealing with propaganda and youth policies. Who was in charge of propaganda? What were the main goals of Nazi propaganda? What forms did propaganda take?
TRIUMP OF THE WILL
Hitler Arrives (0:00-11:00)
Youth Rally (40:00-50:00)
Closing of the Nuremberg Rally (1:26:00- 1:40:00)
Parade (1:00:00- 1:03:00)
How do each of the sections promote the themes Riefenstahl promotes in the film?
THE TRIUMPH OF THE WILL
THE FILM'S CONTEXT
Trade unions and political parties were banned.
Political opponents were first victims of the camp system: mostly Social Democrats and Communists.
Newspapers were bought up by party supporters and directed Goebbels.
Threats of arrest, loss of job, time in a concentration camp, or even execution kept most people in line.
Gestapo, block wardens, and partial justice system
Indefinite imprisonment without trial was legal and common.
NAZI GERMANY: CONSOLIDATING POWER
Instruments of Terror
Quotes from the readings
Quotes from the readings
WHO HAD POWER WITHIN THE THIRD REICH?
WAS HITLER THE MASTER OF THE REICH OR A WEAK DICTATOR?
HOW POWERFUL WAS THE NAZI PARTY?
THE JEWS AND ANTISEMITISM
BLAME FOR WWI LOSS
SUPPOSED LINKS TO COMMUNISM
WHY DID STALIN BEAT HIS RIVALS?
Did Stalin win? Or did the other lose?
Was Stalin so clever & manipulative and in the right position that little else mattered?
Some historians believe this leaves out the ideological advantages Stalin had.
Bucharin implied the Bolsheviks had lost, as the revolution was not going to happen.
Trotsky said a socialist reality could be built in Russia, but but only if the rest of the World does it. Implied the Soviets could not shape their own future.
Stalin's vision decisive and powerful. He appealed to Marxists and to Russian Marxists. He implied there would eventually be worldwide revolution. He stressed the Soviets had produced a successful revolution and would shape their own future and the rest of the World would follow.
"Stalin’s success was due to his control over the party, as he was General Secretary. People outside the Soviet Union felt Trotsky would succeed Lenin, but Stalin was far more adept and capable at building political alliances and engaging in the kind of intrigue and skillful manipulation of people needed to gain power. For example, Kamenev and Zinoviev were manipulated by S, effectively neutralizing their power. He undercut the chief supporters of both the right and the left, eroding their structures of support. He would also suppress his rivals. He would label his rivals divisive and not loyal to the party line. Accuse them of taking part in factionalism and personal interest. For the three years after L’s death, Stalin applied these policies to serve his own ambitions. He became leader in December of 1927 at the 15th Congress in Moscow. He maneuvered himself into the position of unchallenged supreme Communist premier. Through effective manipulation and coordinated planning, he had the party condemn anyone who deviated from Stalin’s party line as deviating from the Party! He became the arbiter of Communist loyalty. No longer going to be a debate. Stalin now monopolized all authority within the party. Some of his opponents recanted their views, some disappeared, and some got the hell out. Trotsky was expelled as he was too big to have killed in the SU at this point. He was murdered in 1940."
DIVIDED NATION & WARLORDS
"All power stems from the barrel of a gun"
Inspired by communist ideology, but very flexible in his approach.
Goal overall was to return China to greatness. In this way he was also a nationalist.
Was never a slave to Soviet/Marxist doctrine. Always adjusting it to unique Chinese circumstances