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Prenatal Diagnosis Techniques

By; Sydney, Rachel, and Karam.
by

Sydney Glover

on 24 October 2012

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Transcript of Prenatal Diagnosis Techniques

Prenatal Diagnosis
Techniques By Sydney Glover, Prenatal diagnosis
uses a variety of techniques to determine the overall health and/or health issues of the unborn fetus, within the womb. Prenatal diagnosis can help with many things, such as:
•- Managing the remaining weeks of a pregnancy
•- Determining the outcome of the pregnancy
•- Planning for possible complications with the birth process
•- Planning for issues that may occur with the newborn infant
•- Deciding whether or not to terminate the pregnancy
•- Finding conditions that may affect the mother Ultrasonography: Amniocentesis: Chorionic
Villus Sampling Techniques/ Applications - Non-invasive procedure that doesn't hurt mother or baby.
- High frequency sound waves are used to produce visible images using the pattern of the echos made by different tissues and organs
- Useful when looking at the size and position of baby and placenta, amount of amniotic fluid, and the fetal anatomy.
- Some abnormalities cannot be seen through ultrasonography, like Down Syndrome -invasive procedure
-needle passed into the
amniotic cavity(inside
uterus)
-entered through lower
abdomen
-amniotic fluid taken
-fluid studied to determine fetal lung maturity
-performed from 14-20 weeks of pregnancy Risks: -fetal loss
-small increase in fetal
mortality -invasive procedure
-catheter (flexible tube) entered in
the vagina, through the cervix, into the uterus and placenta
-other approaches: transabdominal with a needle
-ultrasound used for guidance
-allows cells to be analyzed
-used to identify the genetic disease of the unborn baby -risks are the same as amniocentesis, but higher Rachel Imeson, And Karam Zanzoul description description description description description description description description description description description description description description description description description description description description description description description description description description description description description description description description description description description description description description description description description description description description description description description description description description description description description description description description description description description description description description description description description description description description description description description description description description description description description description description description description description description description description description description description description description description description description description description description description description description description description description description description description description description description description description description description description description description description description description description description description description description description description description description description description description description description description description description description description description description description description description description description description description description description description description description description description description description description description description description description description description description description description description description description description description description description description description description description description description description description description description description description description description description description description description description description description description description description description description description description description description description description description description description description description description description description description description description description description description description description description description description description description description description description description description description Description Potential Misuses With Ultrasounds... A Major Issue... Like India, prenatal diagnosis techniques can be used to determine if the baby is healthy or not. If the baby has a disability, the parents may choose to abort the child. Pictures: -The doctors could read the heartbeat wrong. (Use mother's heartbeat instead of baby's)

-Could predict the wrong sex of the baby through ultrasounds.

-Might not detect whether or not the baby will have a birth defect. Misuse of prenatal diagnostic technology for sex-selected abortions and its consequences in India.


During 1800, the British Government found that there were no daughters in a village in the Eastern Uttar Pradesh region of India. According to the 2001 Census, there were less than 93 women for every 100 men in the Indian population. The prevailing concept that the birth of a female child can signal the beginning of financial ruin and extreme hardship for a poor Indian family is understandable. What is surprising is that even high-income families do not want a female child. The Government of India in its 10th Plan recognized the rights of the female child to equal opportunity, to be free from hunger, illiteracy, ignorance and exploitation. In the National Policy for the Empowerment of Women 2001, a policy framework was laid down for the elimination of discrimination against, and violation of, the rights of the female child. However, the situation continues to worsen, and studies have revealed that sex-selected abortions are practised among all communities despite enactment of laws prohibiting prenatal sex determination. In this paper, we examine the functioning and consequences of the misuse of this technology. Historical Timeline 1950 1970 1960 Research Begins
with Frederick
Osbum National institute of Health Organization began researching ways to find genetic birth defects before the child is born. Disibility Right Movement:
By the 1970's, the disabilities rights movement was made and changed peoples opinions of prenatal testing. 1976 Abortion sky-rockets. With the new technology, you could see whether or not the baby would have Down Syndrome or other disabilities. When there was a case where the child could have Down Syndrome, abortion rates soared to 80-90% or even higher. 1990 An issue is raised involving aborting twins. If one of the twins was disabled, it would be possible to abort one, but leave the healthy one unharmed. Risks/ Benefits Risks Benefits - Some mechanisms could hurt the fetus. (Amniocentesis and Chorionic Villus) - Could give the wrong results or not predict the right thing. (eg. Sex of the baby, disabilities, etc.) -Some mothers just can't undergo the invasive processes because of certain occurrences. (eg. Older age, high blood pressure, etc.) - You have the ability to find out the sex of the baby. -You can prepare yourself for certain disabilities the child may have. -These techniques make it easier to determine if the baby is healthy or not. Parents Physicians In the Sense of
The Law: Perspectives -Find the processes helpful to determine problems with the baby. - Gives them time to prepare for the risks, however small they may be. -May be concerned with the results - Find it helpful with preventing complications with the birth and pregnancy. - Gives them the time to talk parents through their decisions, and to terminate the pregnancy if needed. -Can identify early on abnormalities with fetus and the steps to take for the child to thrive. If these prenatal techniques discover a problem with the fetus that is unwanted by the parents, it may be aborted. This is a very controversial issue. Control Mechanisms Get many different
perspectives! Ask a few doctors about the best technique to use and the path to take. Get different opinions, and ultimately choose one! 2008 Congress passed a law to improve information for parents with children who have disabilites References:

1. History Of Prenatal Screening. (n.d.). In timetoast. Retrieved October 23, 2012, from http://www.timetoast.com/timelines/history-of-prenatal-screening

2. Isalkar, V. (2012, October 8). In 10 Years 250 Sonography Cenres Shut Shop in Pune. The Times o India. Retrieved Octover 18, 2012, from http://timesofindia.indiatimes.com/city/pune

3. Prenatal Diagnosis. (n.d.). Retrieved October 23, 2012, from http://library.med.utah.edu/WebPath/TUTORIAL/PRENATAL/PRENATAL.html

4. Prenatal Diagnosis. (last updated 2012, October 21). In Wikipedia. Retrieved October 23, 2012, from http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Prenatal_diagnosis

5. Prenatal Tests. (n.d.). In KidsHealth. Retrieved October 23, 2012, from http://kidshealth.org/parent/system/medical/prenatal_tests.html Taking Medication You can control the way your pregnancy will go by taking different pregnancy or hormone pills.

It is advised to not take anything while pregnant, to avoid birth defects
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