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Transcript of Leadership
Early Leadership Theories
Contemporary Views on Leadership
Who Are Leaders and What Is Leadership
Someone who can influence others and who has managerial authority
What leaders do;
the process of influencing a group to achieve goals
Ideally, all managers should be leaders
Research focused on identifying personal characteristics that differentiated leaders from non-leaders was unsuccessful.
Later research on the leadership process identified seven traits associated with successful leadership
Drive, the desire to lead, honesty and integrity, self-confidence, intelligence, job-relevant knowledge, and extraversion.
Identified three leadership styles:
Autocratic style: centralized authority, low participation
Democratic style: involvement, high participation, feedback
Laissez faire style: hands-off management
Research findings: mixed results
No specific style was consistently better for producing better performance
Employees were more satisfied under a democratic leader than an autocratic leader.
University of Iowa Studies (Kurt Lewin)
Ohio State Studies
Identified two dimensions of leader behavior
Initiating structure: the role of the leader in defining his or her role and the roles of group members
Consideration: the leader’s mutual trust and respect for group members’ ideas and feelings.
Research findings: mixed results
High consideration/high structure leaders generally, but not always, achieved high scores on group task performance and satisfaction.
Evidence indicated that situational factors appeared to strongly influence leadership effectiveness.
University of Michigan Studies
Identified two dimensions of leader behavior
Employee oriented: emphasizing personal relationships
Production oriented: emphasizing task accomplishment
Leaders who are employee oriented are strongly associated with high group productivity and high job satisfaction.
Appraises leadership styles using two dimensions:
Concern for people
Concern for production
Places managerial styles in five categories:
Country club management
Contingency Theories of Leadership
A leader is one who knows the way, goes the way, and shows the way.
-John C. Maxwell
The Fiedler Model
Proposes that effective group performance depends upon the proper match between the leader’s style of interacting with followers and the degree to which the situation allows the leader to control and influence.
Leaders do not readily change leadership styles.
A certain leadership style should be most effective in different types of situations.
Least-preferred co-worker (LPC) questionnaire
Determines leadership style by measuring responses to 18 pairs of contrasting adjectives.
Hersey and Blanchard’s Situational Leadership Theory (SLT)
Argues that successful leadership is achieved by selecting the right leadership style which is contingent on the level of the followers’ readiness.
Leaders must relinquish control over and contact with followers as they become more competent.
Posits four stages follower readiness
Creates four specific leadership styles incorporating Fiedler’s two leadership dimensions
R1: followers are unable and unwilling
R2: followers are unable but willing
R3: followers are able but unwilling
R4: followers are able and willing
States that the leader’s job is to assist his or her followers in attaining their goals and to provide direction or support to ensure that their goals are compatible with those of the organization
Leaders assume different leadership styles at different times depending on the situation:
Achievement Oriented Leader
Leaders who guide or motivate their followers in the direction of established goals by clarifying role and task requirements.
Leaders who inspire followers to transcend their own self-interests for the good of the organization by clarifying role and task requirements.
An enthusiastic, self-confident leader whose personality and actions influence people to behave in certain ways.
Characteristics of charismatic leaders:
Have a vision.
Are able to articulate the vision.
Are willing to take risks to achieve the vision.
Are sensitive to the environment and follower needs.
Exhibit behaviors that are out of the ordinary.
A leader who creates and articulates a realistic, credible, and attractive vision of the future that improves upon the present situation.
Visionary leaders have the ability to:
Explain the vision to others.
Express the vision not just verbally but through behavior.
Extend or apply the vision to different leadership contexts.
Having patience to share information
Being able to trust others and to give up authority
Understanding when to intervene
Team Leader’s Job
Managing the team’s external boundary
Facilitating the team process
Coaching, facilitating, handling disciplinary problems, reviewing team and individual performance, training, and communication
Leadership Issues in the 21st Century
The power a leader has as a result of his or her position.
The power a leader has to punish or control.
The power to give positive benefits or rewards.
The influence a leader can exert as a result of his or her expertise, skills, or knowledge.
The power of a leader that arise because of a person’s desirable resources or admired personal traits.
Developing Credibility and Trust
Credibility (of a Leader)
The assessment of a leader’s honesty, competence, and ability to inspire by his or her followers
Is the belief of followers and others in the integrity, character, and ability of a leader.
Is related to increases in job performance, organizational citizenship behaviors, job satisfaction, and organization commitment.
Speak your feelings.
Tell the truth.
Fulfill your promises.
Suggestions On Building Trust
Involves increasing the decision-making discretion of workers such that teams can make key operating decisions in develop budgets, scheduling workloads, controlling inventories, and solving quality problems.
Why empower employees?
Quicker responses problems and faster decisions.
Addresses the problem of increased spans of control in relieving managers to work on other problems.
Korean leaders are expected to be paternalistic toward employees.
Arab leaders who show kindness or generosity without being asked to do so are seen by other Arabs as weak.
Japanese leaders are expected to be humble and speak frequently.
Scandinavian and Dutch leaders who single out individuals with public praise are likely to embarrass, not energize, those individuals.
Effective leaders in Malaysia are expected to show compassion while using more of an autocratic than a participative style.
Effective German leaders are characterized by high performance orientation, low compassion, low self-protection, low team orientation, high autonomy, and high participation.
Selected Cross-Cultural Leadership Findings
Dimensions of trust: integrity, competence, consistency, loyalty, and openness
Universal Elements of Effective Leadership
Gender Differences and Leadership
Males and females use different styles:
Women tend to adopt a more democratic or participative style unless in a male-dominated job.
Women tend to use transformational leadership.
Men tend to use transactional leadership.
Training is more likely to be successful with individuals who are high self-monitors than those who are low self-monitors.
Individuals with higher levels of motivation to lead are more receptive to leadership development opportunities.
Substitutes for Leadership
Experience, training, professional orientation, or the need for independence
Routine, unambiguous, and satisfying jobs
Explicit formalized goals, rigid rules and procedures, or cohesive work groups
Becoming an Effective Leader