Transcript of Jungian Analytic Art Therapy
Jungian Analytic Art Therapy Carl Jung was born in Kesswil, Switzerland in 1875 into a very religious household. His father and many of his uncles were pastors and his grandfather was a clergyman (Allen, 2006). Jung's mother was absent during much of his childhood and it was rumored that she suffered from depression and was confined to a mental institution at one point. Jung noticed this as a child and often spoke of his mother as being split into two different people (Allen, 2006). Jung talked about how he had a very lonely and solitary childhood but was soothed by a small mannequin that he carved out of the end of a wooden ruler and told his innermost thoughts and secrets to. This was Carl Jung's first relationship with the therapeutic powers of art making and the collective unconscious which he developed later on in his life. (Edwards, 2001). As a child, Jung felt as if he was split in two like his mother. One Carl was sad and lonely while the other Carl was years beyond his age (Jung, 1961). Jung had many “visions” and dreams after traumatic childhood experiences. As a young boy he was frightened by a Jesuit priest dressed in a black cloak. After this he had a reoccurring dream of entering a large dark hole and finding a figure with one massive eye at the end of a tunnel sitting on a throne (Jung, 1961). Jung was first trained in medicine at the University of Basel starting in 1895 and became fascinated with the human psyche. It was here that he first discovered Freud's work. He sent his essay Studies in Word Association to Freud and a year later they meant in Vienna sparking a 6 year long correspondence and friendship. (Allen, 2006). Jung would later engage in art making to cope with his feelings after he parted ways with Freud (Edwards, 2001). Analytic Therapy Collective Unconscious: Universal, instinctual, and identical in all individuals. It is a deeper level than the personal unconscious. It consists of archetypes (Jung, 1959). Archetypes: Universal patterns, images, and themes that have existed thorough history and which we encounter in our unconscious dreams and perceive in consciousness. An example of archetypes are myths, folklore, religion, and fairytales (Jung, 1959). Complexes: Repressed emotional themes that stick together and reside in the personal unconscious. Psychological disturbance may arise if the complexes are not dealt with (Jung,1964). An example of this could be a negative father complex that someone develops after growing up in a household with an abusive father (Hannah, 1981) Active Imagination: A conscious effort to use imagination to learn and understand fantasies in dreams while awake (Jung, 1959). Individuation: The goal of Analytical therapy to become self-realized or "whole" through the archetype of the “self”. It is the acceptance of the unconscious by the conscious and the ability to have insight and a balance of these psychic levels (Allen, 2006). Analytic Art Therapy Jung personally understood the connection between images made and the unconscious. Because of this he encouraged his patients to use art as a means of creating a visual representations of their dreams and fantasies (Edwards, 2001). Jung used art as a stepping off point during active imagination; it was not the focus of his therapy. Jung used art as a tool for interpretation and understood that he could not interpret the art if he did not have a strong relationship with his patient. Jungian art therapy uses art as the central focus. (Edwards, 2001). Jung saw the Mandala as a symbol of wholeness and referred to it as the “magic circle”. He found the mandala symbol in nature as well as in every culture throughout history as far back as 30,000 years ago. Jung believed that the mandala randomly appears in our dreams and fantasies as a way to cure our psychic disorientation (Jaffe, 1979). Active Imagination in Analytic Art Therapy Active imagination is used to observe and make sense of fantasies within dreams while awake (Jung, 1959). Images and emotions come up from the unconscious and active imagination is used as a way to communicate with these images and the psyche (Wallace, 2011). Jung along with analytic art therapist such as Edith Wallace used art, body movement, writing, and music to engaging active imagination. However, Jung did not refer to the art as art during active imagination because it was active imagination. In analytic art therapy the art making used to evoke the active imagination is considered art making (Wallace, 2011). Dialogue use in Analytic Full transcript
Art Therapy Dialogue acts a a conversation between the unconscious and the conscious. Dialogue arouses and feeds the active imagination. Talking about the artwork is a form of dialogue (Wallace, 2011). The art made during active imagination may project the patients inner thoughts, feelings, and may have alien characteristics. This may come off as a sense of “otherness” to the patient. Dialogue between patient and therapist can help the patient to come to terms with and interpret their art (Edwards, 2011). Dialogue does not have to be limited to just talking; it can take the form of poetry, a story, or a letter written to the image made (Edwards, 2011). Dialogue use in
Analytic Art Therapy Dialogue about the art can change over time. This is why it it important to talk about the artwork right after it is made (Edwards, 2011). Transference filters through the artwork so there is less projection onto the therapist. This in turn leads to less counter-transference from the therapist (Edwards, 2011). References Images http://www.marylandata.org/index.php/gallery/image_full/9/ http://www.myspace.com/official_carl_jung_space http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Analytical_psychology http://www.duversity.org/edith_wallace.htm http://www.straight.com/article-387959/vancouver/don-davies-says-carl-jung-would-have-field-day-analyzing-conservative-politicians http://dreams.umwblogs.org/post-freudian-interpretations-2/carl-jung/ Jaffe, 1997, p. 218 Jaff, 1997, p. 208 Jaffe, 1997, p. 114 Jaffe, 1997, p. 71 http://jungcurrents.com/carl-jung-ten-quotations-about-mandalas/ Whitney Flanigan Jaffe, 1997, p. 73 Jaffee, 1997, p. 117 Jaffee, 1997, p. 117 Jaffe, 1997, p. 118 Jaffe, 1997, p. 124 Allen, B. (2006). Personality Theories: Development, Growth, and Diversity (5th ed.). Boston, MA: Pearson Education, Inc.
Edwards, M. (2001). Jungian Analytic Art Therapy. In J.A. Rubin, Approaches to Art Therapy (2nd ed.) (pp. 81-94). New York, NY: Routledge
Hannah, B. (1981). Encounters with the Soul. Santa Monica, CA: Sigo Press.
Jaffe, A. (Ed.). (1979) C.G. Jung Word and Image. Princeton, NJ: Princeton University Press
Jung, C.G. (1961). Memories, Dreams, Reflections. New York, NY: Pantheon Books
Jung, C. G. (1959). Archetypes of the Collective Unconscious. In H Read, M. Fordham, and G. Adler
(Eds.), The Collected Works of C.G. Jung 9(part 1) (pp. 3-41). New York, NY: Pantheon Books
Wallace, E. (2001). Healing Through the Visual Arts. In J. A. Rubin, Approaches to Art Therapy
(2nd 3d.) (pp. 95- 108). New York, NY:Routledge