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A Healthy Active Lifestyle and Your Cardiovascular System

A look at the CV system for GCSE PE.

richard kyle

on 30 November 2011

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Transcript of A Healthy Active Lifestyle and Your Cardiovascular System

The Cardiovascular system Functions the CV system transports oxygen around the body.
this is vital during exercise. it regulates our body temperature to ensure we do not overheat during exercise it removes waste such as CO2 and lactic acid the heart The heart has 4 chambers, the top 2 are called atria, the bottom 2 are ventricles.
They are labelled in terms of which side of the heart they are, i.e the right ventricle. the double circulatory system Pulmonary circulation deoxygenated blood from heart to lungs oxygenated blood from heart to lungs systemic circulation oxygenated blood from heart to rest of body through arteries deoxygenated blood from body to heart through veins the bloods journey through the CV system deoxgentated blood enters the right atrium from the vena cava.
it goes through the tricuspid valve and into the right ventricle.
through the semi lunar valve, into the pulmonary artery and away to the lungs to become oxygenated.
oxygented blood from the lungs enters the left atruim through the pulmonary vein.
Down through the bicuspid valve and into the left ventricle.
Up through the semi lunar valve and into the aorta, taking the blood to the rest of the body. Blood vessels arteries
carry blood away from heart
carry blood at a higher pressure
thick muscular walls
they pulsate
they carry oxgenated blood (except the pulmonary artery) veins
carry blood towards heart
carry blood at low pressure
have valves
have thin walls
carry deoxygenated blood (except pulmonary vein) capillaries
link between arterioles and venules (arteries and veins)
one cell thick
blood cells pass through them one cell at a time Blood Adults have about 5.5l of blood
Red blood cells - haemoglobin, EPO
White blood cells - fight bacteria, destroy infections
Platlets - aid clotting, stop blood loss
Plasma - liquid part of blood that helps transport these cells. heart rate - the number of times the heart beats per minute

stroke volume - the amount of blood projected from the heart per beat.
with exercise the heart muscles become stronger, so they can push out more blood per beat.
this also explains why resting heart rate lowers with exercise.

Cardiac output - the amount of blood leaving the heart per minute.
CO + HR x sV Blood Pressure the blood exerts force on the walls of the blood vessels, this is your BLOOD PRESSURE.
the further the blood is from your heart, the lower the pressure.
if your blood pressure is too high, it puts a strain on your heart and arteries, and can lead to heart attacks and strokes.
it is important to understand how to measure blood pressure. the best wat to control your blood pressure is
eat less salt
eat more fruit and veg
keep a healthy weight
drink less alcohol
exercise regularly cholesterol made in the liver from the fatty foods we eat.
a small amount is needed for hormones and nerve fibres.
there are 2 types of cholesteral
High density lipoprotein HDL
Low density lipoprotein LDL
hdl - takes cholesterol away from cells, to be broken down by the liver. this is the 'good' cholesteral.
ldl - the 'bad' cholesteral, builds up in arteries, narrowing them and putting you at risk from a heart attack.
the amount of cholesteral in the blood is messured in millimoles/litre (mmol/l)
yours should be less than 5mmol/l, over 6mmol/l is considered to high.
you can reduce cholesteral levels by
eating less saturated fats
regular exercise. Immediate effects of exercise on CV system

increase in HR
systolic blood pressure rises, while diastolic stays the same during aerobic activity
blood pressure rises.
Effects of regular training on the CV system increase strength of heart
incresed size of heart
increased SV
increased max cardiac output
increased capillarisation
increased no. of red bloodcells
drop in resting HR
quicker recovery rate
healthier veins and areteries Long term benefits of exercise on CV system drop in blood pressure
reduction in cholesterol
reduction in likelihood of heart disease and strokes
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