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The Road to Revolution
Transcript of The Road to Revolution
Colonists smuggled to avoid paying tax George Grenville of Parliament reduced the tax but increased enforcement, hoping to be able to collect it Effect:
Came at a time of economic depression in colonies
Made smuggling more dangerous
Boston merchants protested with boycotts The Proclamation of 1763 After French and Indian War, King George issues proclamation to organize new territory, cut off any expansion to the west Effect:
Prevented colonists from moving West of Appalachian Mts.
Increased tensions between Britain and colonists The Quartering Act: 1765 Parliament required colonists to provide living quarters (housing and supplies) to British soldiers in the colonies Effect:
Colonists resented giving housing to troops that were enforcing new taxes.
Listed as a grievance in Declaration of Independence The Stamp Act: 1765 printed materials must be printed on stamped paper Effect:
Colonists cried "no taxation without representation"
Protested by the Sons of Liberty (Ben Franklin, Sam Adams, Paul Revere) with violence and intimidation
Repealed in 1766 as ineffective The Townshend Acts: 1767 Named for Charles Townshend, who proposed the idea, to enforce the idea that Britain had a right to tax the colonies. taxed
lead, glass, paper, paint, and tea Effect:
Organized boycotts to pressure Britain into repealing the taxes
Britain sent in troops and tension and pressure built!
Repealed in 1770...except for tea The Boston Massacre: 1770 Regiments of British troops sent to keep order in Boston Colonists resented the troops: threw rocks, ice, and snow at the troops at Boston Customs House; called them "bloodyback" and "lobsterback" Mob pressed in, confusion and chaos, soldiers panicked Effect:
5 colonists dead, 7 wounded
Sam Adams called it a "massacre"
Paul Revere printed engraving that served as huge piece of propaganda (communication designed to influence how you feel) Americans boycotted tea after the Townshend Acts Boston Tea Party: 1773 British ships sailed to American ports, not allowed to dock or unload Sons of Liberty dressed as Mohawk Indians,
dumped 342 chests into Boston Harbor Effect:
United most British against the colonies
Britain decided colonists could not go unpunished The Coercive (Intolerable) Acts: 1774 Punishment for tea party:
CLOSE BOSTON HARBOR
MA government placed under British control
Troops sent into Boston to enforce the law Effect:
All colonies came out in support of Massachusetts First Continental Congress: 1774 Virginia called for a meeting of all colonies to try to find peaceful resolution
*Georgia didn't come* "I am not a Virginian, I am an American" -Patrick Henry Not all agreed: some thought Boston had gone too far Effect:
Sent a request to King George III to consider colonists complaints
Continued to boycott until Coercive Acts were lifted
Colonies began to prepare militias and "minutemen" The brink of War NH colonists stole 100 barrels of gunpowder and 16 cannons from a British fort King George III ignored requests from Continental Congress: "The New England governments are in a state of rebellion!" A spy told British General Thomas Gage that the colonists were hiding the stolen gunpowder and cannons in Concord, Massachusetts Gage sent 700 troops to march to Concord in secret, in the middle of the night Paul Revere and William Dawes, on the lookout for signal lanterns "One if by land, two if by sea!"
2 lanterns hung in the Old North Church: British coming by SEA Lexington & Concord Minutemen gathered in Lexington: Don't fire unless fired upon, but if they mean to have a war, let it begin here." - Capt. John Parker 8 colonists dead in Lexington, British march on to Concord, starting fires as they go Colonists had hidden weapons, British were frustrated and started a fire Militias saw the smoke, marched to meet the British at OLD NORTH BRIDGE British troops opened fire, colonists stood their ground and returned fire Effect:
74 British dead, 200 wounded/missing
Americans had proved they would fight for their rights The shot heard round the world! A Nation is BORN!