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Energy Drink Article Review
Transcript of Energy Drink Article Review
Potential Problems Among Children and Adolescents
Caffeine and Energy Drink Overdoses
A review of the literature found that:
“’Energy drinks’ are beverages that contain caffeine, taurine, vitamins, herbal supplements, and sugar or sweeteners and are marketed to improve energy, weight loss, stamina, athletic performance, and concentration.”
Considered an herbal supplement
No FDA regulations (71 mg/12 fl oz)
Contain avg. 70-80mg caffeine per 8 oz serving
Caffeine content in additives not reported (1 gm guarana= 40-80 mg caffeine)
Energy Drink Defined
A review of literature
Searching PubMed and Google
Key terms and phrases searched: “’energy drink,’ ‘sports drink,’ ‘guarana,’’caffeine,’ ‘taurine,’ ‘ADHD,’‘diabetes,’ ‘children,’ ‘adolescents,’ ‘insulin,’ ‘eating disorders,’ and ‘poison control center.’”
Websites of energy drink manufacturers
Type of Study and Method
What does the current literature reveal about the “effects, adverse consequences,
and extent of energy drink consumption among children, adolescents, and young adults?”
There is no therapeutic benefit to energy drinks, but they may put kids at risk for adverse health effects
Energy drinks are not regulated by the FDA because they are labeled as a “nutritional supplement”
Marketing targets youth which increases the potential for overdose
High consumption is under documented in children (under 12)
The long term effects and dangers of energy drink consumption in children is yet to be determined
Abnormally high or low heart rate
Increased blood pressure
Increased motor activity and speech rate
Decreased reaction time
Reward-and-addiction center activation
Weight gain due to increase sugar consumption
Combined with taurine: increase in stroke volume
Combined with guarana: Increased risk of blood clots
Adolescents (12-18): 60-70 mg (mostly from soda)
28% 12-14- year-olds, 31% 12-17-year-olds, 34% 18-24-year-olds report regular consumption
Boys are more likely than girls to have tried energy drinks or consume them regularly
51% of college students consume regularly (Insufficient sleep/energy level)
Consumption of Energy Drinks by Children, Adolescents, and Young Adults
Energy drinks now have their own reporting code by US poison control to track toxicity
German Study: related incidents include “liver damage, kidney failure, respiratory disorders, agitation, seizures, psychotic conditions, [muscle breakdown], tachycardia, cardiac dysrhythmias, hypertension, heart failure, and death.”
Define energy drink, look at the data on consumption and physiologic effects among the 10-24-year-old population, and examine the regulation and marketing of the product.
Journal Article Review by Amber Roberts and Karissa Rowley
Health Effects of Energy Drinks on Children, Adolescents, and Young Adults
Copyright 2011 by the American Academy of Pediatrics
July 2013 Update:
Levels of Evidence
Level 3a: Systematic reviews of case-control studies
121 sources used (2/3 were scientific literature)
Mid-level on Sackett scale, so trustworthy & reliable evidence
Awareness of how energy drink consumption affects adolescent physiology.
Caffeine = psychoactive drug/CNS stimulant
effects could affect PT exercises & treatment
Potential patient education program
Questions for Audience
Should nutritional supplements be regulated by the FDA?
What would be a responsible way to market energy drinks to consumers?
Worsen cardiac conditions that have stimulant contraindications
May increase cardiac events in those taking ADHD medications or those with an eating disorder
Increased sugar consumption contributes to the obesity epidemic
Interferes with calcium absorption
Sporting event sponsorship
Social media and video game product placement
Energy Drink Marketing