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History of Computers

By Kylie, Madison, Michaela
by

Michaela Chandler

on 17 October 2012

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Transcript of History of Computers

Madi's Circle Kyli's Circles Mickey's Circle History of Computers!
By: Kyli, Madi, and Mickey Logarithms 2600 B.C. Napier's Bones The Abacus log·a·rithm

noun /ˈlôgəˌriT͟Həm/  /ˈlägə-/ 

logarithms, plural



A quantity representing the power to which a fixed number (the base) must be raised to produce a given number Napier's bones were also called Napier's rods. The Logarithm was invented by John Napier to simplify Equations. He invented it in the early 17th centenary. They can be used to perform multiplication of any number by a number 2-9. It was also called a 'counting frame'. This process was published by Napier in 1617. Logarithms we qickly adopded by navigators, scitentists, enginers and other mathmatitions. It's a calculating tool primarily used in Asia for arithmetic processes. The process is called rabdology. It was used by merchants, traders, and clerks in Africa and Asians. Log Log Log b ( ) x y Grace Hopper = b ( x Grace Brewster Murray graduated from Vassar with a B.A. in mathematics in 1928. ) + b ( y ) 1622 the logarithm of a product is the sum of the logarithms of the factors: She married Vincent Foster Hopper. Slide Ruler Year 1614 Also known as the slip-stick Her best-known contribution to computing was the invention of the compiler, the intermediate program that translates English language instructions into the language of the target computer. Throughout her life, it was her service to her country of which she was most proud. Is mainly used for multiplication and division It was used as a calculation device. Mechanical Calculating
Machines Grace Hopper http://www.sdsc.edu/ScienceWomen/hopper.html Work Cited Its a machine that can preform addition, subtraction, multiplication and division George Boole:
Boolean Algebra http://mathworld.wolfram.com/NapiersBones.html George Boole Year 1694 A little bit about George Boole Jacquard's Loom Punch Cards - November 2, 1815 - December 8, 1864 In 1801 the Frenchman Joseph Marie Jacquard invented a power loom that could base its weave (and hence the design on the fabric) upon a pattern automatically read from punched wooden cards, held together in a long row by rope. http://www.computersciencelab.com/ComputerHistory/HistoryPt2.htm - At age 19 Boole successfully established his own school at Lincoln. Jacquard's technology was a real boon to mill owners, but put many loom operators out of work. - Four years later he took over Hall's Academy, at Waddington, outside Lincoln, following the death of Robert Hall. Angry mobs smashed Jacquard looms and once attacked Jacquard himself. Basile Bouchon (France) devised a loom used for weaving fabric which used aroll of paper punched with holes to produce a pattern. The automation eliminated mistakes. Jacques De Vaucanson (France) improved it, butthe loom was complicated and impractical. It also required an attendant. Joseph Jacquard (France) improved the loom by making a simplermachine that did not require an attendant. Punch cards controlled the machine. 1725-1801 BOOLEAN ALGEBRA His Works it is used to find the truth value. - Boole's first published paper was Researches in the theory of analytical transformations, with a special application to the reduction of the general equation of the second order Pascal 2 2 - In 1841 Boole published an influential paper in early invariant theory Pascal, named in honor of the French mathematician and philosopher Blaise Pascal, was developed by Niklaus Wirth. http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Pascal_(programming_language) Pascal was largely, but not exclusively, intended to teach students structured programming. - In 1847 Boole published The Mathematical Analysis of Logic , the first of his works on symbolic logic. A generation of students used Pascal as an introductory language in undergraduate courses. Pascal was the primary high-level language used for development in the Apple Lisa, and in the early years of the Macintosh. Pascal is still used for developing Windows applications. - The Treatise on Differential Equations appeared in 1859 Blaise Pascal First Analog Computer Niklaus Wirth It was inspired by Kevin's design when he created the analog computer. It was a mechanical or electrical device to represent numbers being manipulated. but the design was not completed Developed in 1854 Collosus Colossus was the world's first electronic, digital, computer that was at all programmable. Colossus and its successors were used by British codebreakers to help read encrypted German messages during World War II. Is a variant of ordinary elementary algebra differing in its values, operations, and laws http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Colossus_computer Colossus was designed by engineer Tommy Flowers with input from Sidney Broadhurst, William Chandler, Allen Coombs and Harry Fensom. Predated the modern developments in abstract algebra and mathematical logic; it is however seen as connected to the origins of both fields. 1880 ELECTRONIC NUMERICAL INTEGRATOR AND CALCULATOR Mark I John Von Nuemann IBM Automatic Sequence Controlled Calculator (ASCC) Von Neumann was the oldest of 3 children of a banker, and his speed of learning new ideas and of solving problems stood out early. At 6, he could divide two 8-digit numbers in his head; by 8 he had mastered calculus; by 12 he was at the graduate level in mathematics. He arranged to study chemistry in Berlin and then Zurich and mathematics in Budapest. In 1926, at 23, he received a degree in chemical engineering in Zurich and a Ph.D. in mathematics in Budapest. Von Neumann really was a legend in his own time, and there are a number of stories about him. 1944 Was an electro-mechanical computer It used 765,000 components and hundreds of miles of wire, comprising a volume of 51 feet (16 m) in length, eight feet (2.4 m) in height, and two feet (~61 cm) deep Was the first operating machine that could execute long computations automatically It was the first electronic general-purpose computer. It was capable of solve a full range of computing problems. It was designed to calculate artillery firing tables for the United States Army's B.R.L. (Ballistic Research Laboratory.) It was introduced in 1946 and was nicknamed “The Giant Brain”. Ada Augusta Lovelace Works Cited! Her work with Charles Babbage and his Calculating Engines produced what she called "the plan". http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/George_Boole In hindsight what Ada had proposed was a program stored on punch cards for use on an early computer, The Analytical Engine in 1843. http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Boolean_algebra http://www.ideafinder.com/history/inventors/lovelace.htm Apple Computers were invented http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Boolean_algebra Although her life was short, she only lived 36 years, Augusta Ada Lovelace anticipated by more than a century most of what we think is brand-new computing. Works Cited Ada Byron Lovelace was a British mathematician and musician, born in London in 1815. Ada married Lord William King, Earl of Lovelace, and had three children. She died of cancer in 1852 at the age of 36. http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Harvard_Mark_I http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/File:Harvard_Mark_I_Computer_-_Input-Output_Details.jpg Microprocessor The first programmable microprocessor — the Intel® 4004 — made its debut in 1971 in a business calculator. Since then, multiple generations of Intel microprocessors have gone on to be the brains in a variety of everyday products, from gas pumps and traffic light controllers to some of history’s most profound moments, like the Apollo space missions and medical research into the human genome. http://mashable.com/2011/11/07/intel-sponsored-post/ The dramatic evolution of computing over the past few decades has unleashed wave after wave of innovation. Konrad Zuse 1910 The Evolution His greatest achievement was the world's first functional program-controlled Turing-complete computer, the Z3, which became operational in May 1941. Transistors A transistor is a semiconductor device used to amplify and switch electronic signals and electrical power. Zuse was also noted for the S2 computing machine, considered the first process-controlled computer http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Transistor It is composed of semiconductor material with at least three terminals for connection to an external circuit. A voltage or current applied to one pair of the transistor's terminals changes the current flowing through another pair of terminals. Because the controlled (output) power can be higher than the controlling (input) power, a transistor can amplify a signal. Today, some transistors are packaged individually, but many more are found embedded in integrated circuits. Apple was founded on April 1st, 1976. After that it has been know to be Americas multinational corporation that designs and sells consumer electronics, computer software, and personal computers. From 1943 to 1945 he designed the first high-level programming language, Plankalkül. The transistor is the fundamental building block of modern electronic devices, and is ubiquitous in modern electronic systems. 1 History
1.1 1976–1980: The early years
1.2 1981–1985: Lisa and Macintosh
1.3 1986–1993: Rise and fall
1.4 1994–1997: Attempts at reinvention
1.5 1998–2005: Return to profitability
1.6 2005–2007: The Intel transition
1.7 2007–2011: Widespread success
1.8 2011–present: Post–Steve Jobs era Some facts about Konrad Charles Babbage Konrad Zuse Charles Babbage was an English mathematician, philosopher, inventor and mechanical engineer who originated the concept of a programmable computer. 1910–1995 Considered a "father of the computer" Babbage is credited with inventing the first mechanical computer that eventually led to more complex designs. Was a German civil engineer, inventor and computer pioneer. http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Charles_Babbage Parts of his uncompleted mechanisms are on display in the London Science Museum. Born in Berlin, Germany, on 22 June 1910, he moved with his family in 1912 to Braunsberg, East Prussia, In 1991, a perfectly functioning difference engine was constructed from Babbage's original plans. In 1946, Zuse founded one of the earliest computer companies: the Zuse-Ingenieurbüro Hopferau Built to tolerances achievable in the 19th century, the success of the finished engine indicated that Babbage's machine would have worked. Nine years later, the Science Museum completed the printer Babbage had designed for the difference engine. IBM introduced the PC MS-DOS. 1981 Works Cited http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Konrad_Zuse http://histinf.blogs.upv.es/2010/11/02/konrad-zuse/ http://histinf.blogs.upv.es/2010/11/02/konrad-zuse/ http://www.zib.de/zuse/home.php SWITCH CIRCUITS Kyli is cool pooop It’s a method of connecting technical networks. Circuits would connect you to someone else’s network so it was possible to talk to them, like calls, messaging, est. Magnetic Tape Early 1950's One roll of magnetic tape could store as much data as 10,000 punch cards it achieved instant success and became the most popular way of storing of computer data until the mid 1980s During the 1960s, the punch card as the primary medium was gradually replaced by better, more capable and more efficient magnetic tape HOLLERITH’S TABULATOR Conclusion Tape backups were the most widespread, because of tape drive’s reliability, scalability and low cost I learned a lot from this project. I learned that computers have come a long way throughout the years. Technology is so high tech now and it wouldn't be that way if some of the amazing people I learned about didn't invent it.
Such as: Grace Hopper, her best-known contribution to computing was the invention of the compiler. And Frenchman Joseph Marie Jacquard invented a power loom that could base its weave, and many more. But the one thing I loved was learning about all of the women that invented important technology. Before I didn't know how to use prezi, but now I am more comfortable with Prezi. I had a lot of fun with this project because it was fun, easy, and I enjoyed working in a group of three. Work Cited http://www.backuphistory.com/ Hollerith’s tabulator was used in the United States in 1890. Cards
containing 288 locations at which holes could be punched ran under a set of contact
brushes which completed an electrical circuit wherever the holes appeared. The 1890
census processed the records of over 53 million people. http://www.ahutton.com/images/flxlabls.gif http://www.chipsetc.com/univac--sperry--remmington-rand.html Works Cited http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Abacus http://forums.civfanatics.com/showthread.php?t=459006 http://www.inc.com/welcome.html?destination=http://www.inc.com/minda-zetlin/leverage-big-data-in-your-small-business-5-tips.html Works Cited http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Slide_rule http://museum.mit.edu/150/19 The IBM was the one who assembled to develop the PC decided that critical components of the machine, like the operating system, would come from outside vendors. This radical break from company tradition of in-house development was the big decision that made the IBM PC an industry standard. But it was done to save time. Microsoft was picked to do the operating system.IBM first contacted Microsoft to look the company over in July 1980. Negotiations continued over the next months, and the paperwork was officially signed in early November. There for the introducing to the PC 1960 CDC 1604 Was a 48-bit computer designed and manufactured by Seymour Cray and his team at the Control Data Corporation Known as the first commercially successful transistorized computer The first 1604 was delivered to the US Navy in 1960 1977 Radio Shack TRS-80 Was Tandy Corporation's desktop microcomputer model line, sold through Tandy's Radio Shack stores in the late 1970s and early 1980s, and one of the earliest mass-produced personal computers The Intel Pentium
processor appeared. The line won popularity with hobbyists, home users, and small-businesses 1993
The pre-release price was $500 and a $50 deposit was required, with a money back guarantee at time of delivery http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/TRS-80 http://www.oldcomputers.com/museum/computer.asp?c=243 The prosseser was a 2 star rating in quality when i can out, it was the fith generation of its time. On March 22, 1993. Marketing firm Lexicon Branding was hired to coin a name for the new processor. Due to its success, the Pentium brand would continue through several generations of high-end processors beyond the original. http://mew3.us/images/vintagecomputer/trs80m3.jpg http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Pentium Works Cited! The Apple IIe Is the third model in the Apple II series of personal computers produced by Apple Computer It also improved upon expandability and added a few new features The Apple IIe has the distinction of being the longest-lived computer in Apple's history, having been manufactured and sold for nearly 11 years with relatively few changes. 1983 http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Apple_IIe http://www.computercloset.org/AppleIIePlatinum.htm http://www.vectronicsappleworld.com/profiles/50.html Works Cited Questions? Summary Over all I found doing this project a lot of fun. I'm not used to working in groups of three, usually you're just working in pairs or by yourself, so it was an interesting opportunity for me. I learned a lot by doing this project too. Like interesting facts about the technology that has led up to our modern day electronics. I also learned that more than one person could work on a Prezi at a time. It was easier to work on the project this way, and we could bounce idea's off of each other which, in my opinion, made our project come out better and more unique. K y l i ' s C i r c l e s ' ' ' ' ' ' ' ' ' ' ' ' ' ' ' ' ' ' ' ' ' ' ' '
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