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The Middle Ages
Transcript of The Middle Ages
The Early Middle Ages
Case study in the examination of what happens to cultures when advanced civilizations fall
The Middle Ages bring the rise of the Christian Church which is ingrained into Western culture today.
Many of the major nations today find their beginnings in the Medieval Era (England, France).
Continually evolving military technology based on competition
It was not uncommon during the medieval period, for animals to be put on trial for crimes. Animals could be sentenced to death if found guilty.
Most advances were added by the Moors in Spain
Most people only took a bath once a year (if lucky)
The modern day concept of witches appear during this period
The horses used by knight were much smaller than the horses of today
The Dark Ages
Period right after the fall of Rome to the Battle of Hastings in 1066.
Named so for the dark gloomy outlook people had during this time
Europe is controlled by various barbarians with no central ruler.
The greatest king of the early Middle Ages
The Charlemagne would fight Muslims in Spain, Saxons in the north, Slavs in the east, and Lombards in Italy
Raiders from Scandinavia
Frequently attacked Charlemagne’s Empire
Helped settle modern day Russia
Discovered North America, they didn’t know
The Battle of Tours
In 732 the invading Muslim Moors entered modern day France
Charles “The Hammer” Martel used his Frankish troops to fight the Moors back to Spain.
Had the Battle of Tours been lost, Europe would have become a Muslim continent.
Gave land to nobles in exchange for loyalty and service
His nobles gave their land to knights
Peasants gave up rights to be protected
Built the first schools since the Roman Empire.
Became educated himself and learned out to read.
Expanded Christianity and made it the official religion
Was crowned by the Pope as the "Emperor of the Holy Roman Empire
Enlarged his kingdom to include France, Germany, Holland, Belgium, and Northern Italy
At its base, life in the Middle Ages was much simpler than life had been during the Roman times.
The vast majority of people were simple farmers
The “only” form of government during this time was Feudalism
Serfs were the peasants for worked for the noble, ether around his manor or in it.
Most peasants would never leave these manors or castles
What did though was create a completely self sufficient life style.
Nobles and Knights
Boys were trained their whole lives to become knights
At 7 years old a father’s boy would be sent to the castle of his lord.
He would learn to ride, fight, keep his armor nice, and become educated.
After his training he would be knighted and take his place beside other warrior knights
Knights followed a code of ethics called chivalry
A knight was bound to carry out this code through his whole life
Not all knights did
Knights must be:
Protector of women
Defenders of the Church
Evolved out of a need for nobles to defend their land
Particularly from raiders such as Vikings, Slavs, and Muslims.
Most high and important nobles will have castles
Motte and Bailey
Stone Keep Castles
The Medieval Church
The Roman Catholic Church
This was the primary (only) church during the Middle Ages
The center of the church was in Rome.
The church was lead by the Pope
The Pope had more power than all the kings.
Foundations of the Medieval Church
Used parables to explain love and morality
Christians believed in his miracles
Apostles spread Christianity
Peter brought Christianity to Rome
Gospels (stories of Jesus' life) written 100 years after his death
Old Testament + New Testament
Early leader St. Paul and Apostles were first "priests"
Over time, only specially trained men could administer the sacraments.
7. Last Rights
Salvation or Damnation
Salvation = Saving
Salvation is gained through
Following Church traditions
Performing good deeds
Living a moral life
Christians believed that salvation would help their souls enter heaven.
Damnation was the result of living a life of sin
Souls that are damned are banished to hell
Hell is ruled by Lucifer (the devil) who was cast from heaven
Souls are tortured by fire and demons
Set Apart from Society
Monk = Greek for "living alone"
Nun = Egyptian for "virgin"
Nuns and Monks wanted to avoid war, sickness, sin, corruption, and wanted to serve God and Christianity
Life Guided by Rules
St. Benedict wrote "The Rule" duties for monks to live by
Duties: work, study, pray
Vows: chastity, poverty, and obedience
A Life of Work
food for poor
Monastery and Convent
Monasteries had monks led by a abbot
Convents had nuns led by a abbess
Hundred Years War
The Black Death
Conflict Between Church & State
Who chooses church officials?
The State's Reasons
Henry IV was emperor of the Holy Roman Empire
He wanted to choose his own church officials to gain support against German nobles
Pope Gregory said no
The Church's Reasons
wanted to reform corrupted church leaders who worked with kings
outlawed lay investiture "kings choosing church officials"
Conflict Between Henry & Gregory
Henry demands that Pope Gregory resign as Pope
Pope Gregory excommunicates Henry
Excommunication is to be removed from the church.
Henry realizes his mistake
He asks Pope Gregory for forgiveness
The Pope finally forgives Henry
Concordat of Worms states the church chooses church officials
Kings could gives land grants or titles to church officials
The Black Death
There had been stories from the east of a great plague.
By the late 14th Century Europe had well expanded its trade from Early Middle Ages
In the autumn of 1347 Italian trade ships coming from the Middle East and docked in the town of Genoese.
By the time the ship got there most of the sailors and died from plague.
About half of all the villagers would also die from the plague.
The Black Death
Named for the “buboes” that appear on ones flesh from infection
The plague is carried by fleas, who are transported by rats.
The Cause: Bubonic Plague
Bubonic plague is incredibly contagious, it can be transmitted through multiple means: air, touch, fleas.
In just 6 years, almost all of Europe is infected.
The Plague Spreads, rapidly
During the outbreak, many Europeans wonder what they did so wrong to anger God.
Many start to blame the Church, ether saying it was leading down the wrong path, or was not strict enough on wrong doers, aka Heretics.
The Church begins to lose power.
Plague Hurts the Church
A form or government where nobles pledge loyalty to a king in return for land.
Self sufficient towns during the Middle Ages, ruled over by a noble who lived in a Manor
Christian holy wars against the Muslims
Original goal was to take back Jerusalem
schism = split
The schism was a time when the Catholic Church had two Popes, one in Rome, the other in France
Church would lose power
A 117 year war between England and France
Joan of Arc was the general for the French
Self sufficient community of monks or nuns, dedicated to prayer and sacrifice
Massive outbreak of disease during the Middle Ages
Killed over 1/3 of all of Europe
Church Loses Power
The Medieval Schism
Multiple people claimed to be the true pope.
The cardinals voted for a pope but soon regretted the choice, they broke off and went to France, voting for a new pope.
Damaged and hurt the reputation of the church and Pope.