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UAV project

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Eric Lim J C

on 26 May 2014

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Transcript of UAV project

Adam Sullivan
Julian Jesusthasan
Lim Zhi Wei
Wong Wei Jie
Lim Jaan Cherng
Kyaw Kyaw Naing
Kong Wee Jack

UAV with sensor and wireless video communication
NGK-12-05

Optics and Sensor
BeagleBoard-xM
Data Compression
Fundamental components of a Camera.
- Texas Instruments Cortex A8 1 GHz processor.
- 512 MB DDR RAM.
- Used in:
- Controlling camera driver from Leopard
Imaging.
- Displaying captured images in DVI Monitor.
- Storing captured images in SD card.
- Supporting wireless data transmission
through XBee module.
Raw video output has very high data rates.
Compression reduces the data rate of transmission.
Data Rate Controller
Essential due to low data rate in wireless transmission.
Monitors data and optimize it before transmission.
Wireless Transmission
Introduction
Base Station
-JPEG image Viewer.
-Achieved using Java package,
‘javax.swing.ImageIcon’.
Steps:
1) Display JPEG images received as
an ImageIcon in NetBeans.
2) Display steam of images with fixed
intervals using Timer.
Conclusion
Camera board LI-5M03CS
Interface between the lens , sensor and Processor.
Special drivers had to be installed using a Linux based operating system.
Hardware Specification
Software Development
MPEG
JPEG
"Joint Photographic Experts Group".
MPEG was developed from the success of JPEG.
Their encoding concepts are extremely similar.
JPEG is used for the compression of single images instead of video.
JPEG vs MPEG
MPEG has advantage in video encoding due to motion compensation algorithms.
MPEG will also require more processing power.
In the bit rate constraints of this project, periodic transmission of single images is more effective than a video stream.
Fuzzy Logic Controller
Utilizes a data buffer (water bucket) to store data.
Fast and precise response to prevent data dropped (water overflowing).
Progressive JPEG
Blur overview instead of segments of image.
Block Diagram
To get Optimum Speed for Transmission
XBee API
-Control using JAVA language (NetBeans).
*Implemented by using
xbee-api
Java package
developed by Andrew Rapp.
*Interact with XBee radios by accessing local
serial port (USB port) for handling the data
flow from the SKXBee.

-Categorized into two sections:
1) Transmitter 2) Receiver
Transmitter & Receiver
Transmitter
Supervisor & Moderator:
Dr Nafizah Khan
Dr Lim Wee Gin

Unmanned Aerial Vehicle (UAV)

What is a UAV?
UAV’s With Communication and Vision System.


Aims of the Final Year Project.
Architecture for Components the Project.
In Depth Look at Each of the Individual Components.


Future Developments for the Project.
Final Thoughts.

“Model aircraft on steroids”.
More commonly known as “drones”.
Planes which fly unmanned, no pilot in the cockpit.
Either flown by global positioning system technology or remote control.
Main advantages; poses no risk to human life, can fly over dangerous landscapes and can fly for prolonged periods.
Unmanned Aerial Vehicle (UAV)
Aims and Architecture
Conclusion
What is a UAV

Components for a communicating vision system;
Camera
Transmitter
Receiver
UAV’s With Communication and Vision System
Aims and Architecture
Aims of the Final Year Project

To develop and construct a UAV camera system for forest monitoring capable of capturing high-quality ground images during flight, and transmit data to a grounded base station in order to display the camera feed as close to real-time as possible.
Aims and Architecture
Architecture for Components the Project
Receiver
Concept:
Process JPEG images captured into smaller byte arrays to be packetized and sent through XBee modules.
Concept:
Process and compile packets received into a byte array to be saved back as a JPEG image.
Block Diagram
Block Diagram
Transmitter GUI
Receiver GUI
Base Station GUI
Conclusion
Recap

Replace Xbee series 1 with Xbee Wi-Fi module .
Replace camera module with either HD Webcam or camera.
With these improvements overall performance of the proposed system is upgraded.
Thank You For Listening!
Any Questions?
Sensor
Light is received by pixels on an array, producing an analogue voltage which are then converted using an ADC.
CCD vs CMOS
CMOS sensors
Images are more noisy
consume less power
Cheaper
Less Circuitry Required
Best CMOS Sensor
MT9P031
Number of Pixels
Shutter
Signal to noise ratio
Colour Filter
Bayer/RGB
CYGM
5 MP
SNR = 38.1dB
Global Shutter Mechanism
Lens
Contributing Factors
Focal length
Aperture
Angle of view
Format
2 MF-MI-6-C-3MP
Focal length - 6mm
F 1.8
angle of view - 59 degrees
1/2.5" format
Lossless
Lossy
Technique that involves the loss of data during compression.
Despite this disadvantage, lossy has much higher compression ratios.
Some data loss of redundant information will not severely affect the video quality.
This is the preferred compression type for the purpose of this project.
Compression with no data loss.
Less efficient than lossy, but perfectly preserves all data.
Important for computer data files
Photographic images has a lot of redundancies that can be ignored.
"Moving Picture Experts Group".
One of the most commonly used lossy file formats for video.
Co-developed by several industry leaders to create a standardized video file format.
Encoding Process
Quantisation
Transform Coding
Motion Compensation
Storage of an image in digital form.
Application of Discrete Cosine Transform to the pixel array to obtain a series of coefficients.
Sections of images that are similar throughout a period of time can be coded as motion vectors instead of repeating the data.
Developments
Wireless Protocol Comparison
XBee ProS1 is a wireless communication device based on IEEE 802.15.4 industrial standard wireless protocol which is developed by IEEE .It is also a branch of WPAN protocol.
XBEE OSI Seven Layer System
Why XBee ProS1?
AT Mode vs
API Mode
.
64 bit address vs
16bit Address
.
Indirect Method vs
Direct Method
.
Unicast vs
Broadcast Method
.
Step 2: Linux kernel configuration to install MT9P031 driver
Step 3: Use "mplayer" to save JPEG images to MMC/SD card
Step 4: Direct Access to image sensor registers via SYSFS
Step 5: Java Development Involving XBee
Step 1: Booting Angstrom Linux on MMC/SD card
One 70MB FAT partition labeled boot contains boot files.
One ext3 partition labeled Angstrom contains filesystem.
Software Development on Beagleboard-xM
Establish a serial communication (over USB) between the BeagleBoard-xM and XBee using a Java program.
MT9P031 driver is Video for Linux 2 (V4L2) driver that is compiled into Beagleboard-xM Linux Angstrom Distribution.
"MT9P031 support" is selected so that the driver is part of kernel image.
Angstrom "mplayer" video application can be used for previewing video at various resolution.
Use "mplayer" to take snapshots and to save a JPEG format image to the MMC/SD card.
MT9P031 driver exposes device registers to the user via SYSFS interface. Device registers can be written/read.
Used to adjust the sensor exposure time, sensor global gain.
Example:
Aim:
Real-time streaming
Efficient use of data transmission
1.1
1.2
1.3
2.1
2.2
2.3
2.4
2.5
2.6
2.7
2.8
3.1
3.2
3.3
3.4
3.5
3.6
3.7
3.8
4.1
4.2
4.3
4.4
4.5
4.6
4.7
4.8
4.9
4.10
5.1
5.2
5.3
5.4
5.5
6.1
6.2
6.3
6.4
6.5
6.6
6.7
6.8
6.9
6.10
6.11
7.1
7.2
Full transcript