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The Romantic Period
Transcript of The Romantic Period
• focused on emotions and imagination rather than reason (went against the Enlightenment)
• individual freedom was key
• concerned with the individual, not society
• love of the common man
• fascination with the supernatural
• nationalism General Characteristics The Prelude - William Wordsworth; "considered by many to be the crowning achievement of English romanticism;" first in a new style of poetry
Lyrical Ballads - a collection of poems written by William Wordsworth and Samuel Taylor Coleridge; they wrote about the natural and supernatural worlds
Don Juan - Lord Byron; considered one of the great long English poems; influenced many later Romantic poets
Prometheus Unbound - Percy Bysshe Shelley
Hyperion - John Keats Literary Selections Major Historical Events Literary Style Beers, Henry Augustin. A History of English Romanticism in the Nineteenth Century. New York: Henry Hold and Company, 1918.
Curran, Stuart. Poetic Form and British Romanticism. New York: Oxford University Press, 1986.
academic.brooklyn.cuny.edu/english/melani/cs6/rom.html Bibliography 1770 - 1850 William Wordsworth 1757 - 1827 William Blake 1772 - 1834 Samuel Taylor Coleridge 1788 - 1824 George Gordon Byron
(Lord Byron) 1792 - 1822 Percy Bysshe Shelley 1795 - 1821 John Keats both his mother and father died when he was young
studied at St. John's College in Cambridge
both a walking tour of Europe and a period of living in France helped shape his sympathy for the common man
he became close friends with fellow poet Samuel Taylor Coleridge claimed to have supernatural "visions" at an early age and throughout his career
after his brother, Robert, died, Blake claimed that Robert's spirit continued to visit him
he originally wished to be a painter, through which he was exposed to Gothic styles
seen as a radical thinker, he emphasized imagination instead of reason he attended Jesus College at the University of Cambridge, originally planning on being a clergyman
he had financial problems throughout his life
he was great friends with Robert Southey; they planned to travel to the New World together, but Southey changed his mind and Coleridge was left with nothing to do but begin his career as a writer
he also became good friends with fellow poet William Wordsworth
in his later life, he lectured on literature and philosophy and wrote about religious and political theory had an unhappy childhood
his first published volume of poems was deemed obscene, and he ended up recalling and burning most copies
after the publishing of Childe Harold's Pilgrimage, he became famous among the upper class
he campaigned for social reform and workers' rights
after several love affairs, he had to flee England and went to Italy he attended Oxford University, but was kicked out when he and another student, Thomas Jefferson Hogg, wrote a pamphlet called "The Necessity of Athiesm"
he eloped twice, once with Harriet Westbrook and then with Mary Godwin
he became good friends with Lord Byron; they would sail together and discuss many topics, including ghosts and spirits - this idea of writing ghost stories prompted Mary to write Frankenstein both of his parents died when he was young
his new guardians sent him to school to study medicine and become an apothecary
through editor Leigh Hunt, he became close associates of Percy Bysshe Shelley and William Wordsworth; however, he was never too fond of Shelley
he is described as having an "almost painfully acute sensitiveness to beauty" (Beers 8) The French Revolution The Romanticists were unhappy with the French Revolution as it brought a sensation of war and terror throughout the country. Death was prominent as around 40,000 executions were estimated during this time. The Romanticists were displeased that the country was focusing its efforts on battle scheming and war preparations instead of on religion and the mystical reasoning that entered the minds of Romanticists daily. The Romanticists longed for a return of the peaceful country in order to influence others to contemplate on nature and the meaning of the supernatural. The Industrial Revolution in Europe caused a high demand in labor and the hours put into each job. The outcome was outstanding as the assembly of machines increased mass production and encouraged Europe to continue advancing in its technology. The Romanticists were slightly concerned that the sudden advance in technology would prevent people from enjoying the simplicity of nature and the discoveries made by the mind. Romanticists during the Industrial Revolution were focused on drastically separating the advanced technologies from the simplicity of nature. Britain became a leading world power in the technology industry and Romanticists worried that future tensions with bordering countries would hinder the Romanticists' influence to spread a mindset of religion and nature to all of Europe. The Industrial Revolution This picture illustrates the war and terror surrounding the country. It is quite evident that all a Romanticist stands for is impossible to implement in a time such as this. Primary vehicle of expression - poetry
Variety in theme, style and content
Natural verbiage and rhythmic flow
Symbolism, myth, and heroism
Popular themes: country life (pastoral poetry)
Mythological and fantastic settings were popular
Poetic Form: transformed from rhymed stanzas to blank verse
Poets voiced strong connection between medievalism and mythology
Mystical and imaginative quality
Steady loosening of the rules of artistic expression
Greater emphasis on emotions rather than reason
Boldness was preferred over restraint The Industrial Revolution of Europe caused a feeling of technological advancement. In this picture above the last rail is being laid. The first railroad was created in Europe and thus plays a significant factor in the way individual's were thinking about their country: power, advancement, and desire were the leading thoughts. The Romanticists couldn't protrude these thought barriers. The ideas of emotion, religion, and supernatural faded as demand in technology increased. 1743 - 1825 Anna Barbauld inspired to write by writer Joseph Priestley
wrote both about personal matters and religious and political matters
she and her husband founded a boarding school, and her experience with children greatly influenced and was depicted in her personal writings
most of her published works were on political affairs