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The Chemistry of Soap

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Emily Bernard

on 3 June 2013

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Transcript of The Chemistry of Soap

By Emily Bernard, period 6 The Chemistry of Common Soaps This graphic organizer looks somewhat like a soap micelle would, if they weren't microscopic. The chemicals in soap are surfactants, and lessen surface tension. (Fats + Oils) + Alkali treatment = *<SOAP>* What is water hardness? (and how can it be an issue when you are trying to clean?) CH3(CH2)16CO2-Na+ + HCl CH3(CH2)16CO2H + Na+ + Cl- 2 CH3(CH2)16CO2-Na+ + Mg2+ CH3(CH2)16CO2-2Mg2+ + 2 Na+ (soap scum) (creates bathtub rings, roughens materials) <-- This is one of the carboxylate heads. They are attracted to water molecules. <-- These are the water-fearing "tails", or hydrocarbon chains. They pull on each other, not water molecules, and assemble into tiny balls called micelles. Surface tension: the elasticlike force existing in the surface of a body, especially a liquid, tending to minimize the area of the surface, caused by asymmetries in the intermolecular forces between surface molecules. surfactant: (also known as surface-active agent) any substance that when dissolved in water or an aqueous solution reduces its surface tension or the interfacial tension between it and another liquid. Soap micelles evenly retreat from one another, holding dirt particles in fixed places until they are washed away with more water. The use of strong bases (Sodium Hydroxide and Potassium) helps to dissolve substances. Individual fats or oils are composed of a unique combination of multiple contrasting triglycerides. Triglyceride: three acid molecules to one molecule of glycerin Water hardness is determined by the appearance of mineral salts, such as Calcium and Magnesium. CREDITS http://chemistry.about.com/od/cleanerchemistry/a/how-soap-cleans.htm
All images licensed for commercial use, if not previously credited
Mineral salts + Soap = Soap Film or Scum * difficult to wash away
* makes clothing inflexible
* makes your mom sad Turns soap molecules into free acids
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