Send the link below via email or IMCopy
Present to your audienceStart remote presentation
- Invited audience members will follow you as you navigate and present
- People invited to a presentation do not need a Prezi account
- This link expires 10 minutes after you close the presentation
- A maximum of 30 users can follow your presentation
- Learn more about this feature in our knowledge base article
Do you really want to delete this prezi?
Neither you, nor the coeditors you shared it with will be able to recover it again.
Make your likes visible on Facebook?
You can change this under Settings & Account at any time.
Nervous System Period 2
Transcript of Nervous System Period 2
Transmit information through nerve impulses via neurons
Nerve impulse pathway:
Sensory, Integrative, Motor Brain
Receives and interprets information
Initiates a response Nerves
Cranial - from brain
Spinal - from spinal cord
Connect CNS to other parts of the body
Somatic and Autonomic Controls skeletal muscles
Voluntary - under conscious control
Initiates response via nerves:
Afferent (Sensory) - Incoming info
Efferent (Motor) - Outgoing info Carry info to smooth/cardiac muscles and glands
Involuntary, but influenced by conscious thought
Divided into efferent pathways Parasympathetic: Rest and repair Sympathetic: "Fight or flight" Nervous System Cells Neurons: send signals
Glia: helper cells that protect and repair neurons Signal Transduction 1. Resting potential - Unstimulated state of neuron (~70 mV) 2. Action potential - Complete depolarization (~30 mV) 3. Repolarization - Restoration of original membrane polarization, but K+ on outside and Na+ on the inside 4. Hyperpolarization - More K+ outside cell than necessary for polarized potential (~-80 mV) 5. Refractory period - Neuron doesn't respond to new stimulus
- Reestablishes distribution of ions
- Returns to resting potential Depolarization: -∆ in membrane potential so that the inside of the membrane is less negative than the outside. Threshold: -Intensity of stimulus that must be reached to cause an action potential to begin Gated-Ion Channels: -Opens and closes in response to a particular ion (response alters membrane potential) -Voltage-gated and Stimulus-gated Behavior and Learning Operant Conditioning- When animal connects own behavior with a specific environmental response (EX: Rats trained to push levers to obtain food or avoid harmful shocks)
Spatial Learning- When animal connects the characteristics of a location with the reward from identifying/returning to the location (EX: Wasps able to identify their nests by using pinecones as markers)
Habituation- Learned behavior that allows an animal to ignore a stimuli (EX: During the cat dissection, we became habituated to the smell of the formaldehyde)
Observational Learning- When animals copy other animal's behavior
Insight- When an animal reacts to a new environment or stimuli without any prior experience resulting in a positive outcome (EX: A chimpanzee stacks boxes in order to access to bananas that were beyond reach) Sensory and Motor Mechanisms Sensory Receptors: -Mechanoreceptors detect pressure, stretch, motion, touch, and sound
-Chemoreceptors detect solute concentration
-Electromagnetic receptors detect electromagnetic energy like electricity, light, and magnetism (Ex: Snakes can detect body heat)
-Thermoreceptors detect hot and cold
-Nociceptors detect stimuli that reflect harmful conditions Gray Matter: -Mainly neurons
-Where integration occurs Reflexes: White Matter: -Bundled axons of neurons with myelin sheaths
-Makes up much of the spinal cord Sensory neuron Integrating neuron Motor neuron Reflexes: -Body's innate responses to a stimulus -Rapid involuntary response
-Ex: knee jerk Engrams: example of learning through experience
Instinct: innate or inherited behavior
Fixed Action Patterns- innate behaviors that follow a regular pattern
-EX: care for offspring by female mammals is innate
Imprinting- innate program for acquiring a specific behavior during a specific time
-EX: Salmon return to their place of birth because they imprinted the odors associated with their birthplace
Associative Learning/Classical Conditioning - Animal recognizes that two or more events are connected/one reaction is connected to a stimulus
-EX: In the lab with the cup and flashlight, the pupil dilated even when the light was not present) Vision Parts of eye: Cornea: does majority of focusing light
Iris: colored part of eye
-Pupil: adjusts amount of light coming into eye
-Radial muscles open pupil/ Sphincter muscles close pupil Lens: major adjustment of focus
Retina: layer of photoreceptors
-Cones: they need high ambient light, used for fine detail/ color
-Rods: they need low ambient light, detect motion, see in shades of gray Fovea: center point of vision Hearing and Balance Parts of Ear: Balance -inner ear
-semicircular canals detect dynamic equilibrium
-utricle and saccule detect static equilibrium Hearing -outer ear- help channel sound
-middle ear- eardrum/ 3 bones that transfer vibrations to inner ear
-inner ear- cochlea detect specific frequencies from vibrations Smell Nose -chemoreceptors in mucus to dissolve substances for smell Taste Tongue -taste buds with chemoreceptors to detect 5 tastes: bitter, sour, sweet, salty, umani - contains nucleus and other organelles - receive signal transfers signal Schwann Cell glial cell that forms myelin sheath for insulation insulates to speed up nerve signal sends signal Nodes of Ranvier -gap between schwann cells that signal travels along Behavior and Learning Cont. The Brain Brain consists of 3 layers of tissue called meninges
Made up of 4 parts
- Cerebrum Occipital Lobe -Combines images, object/pattern recognition and processes visual stimuli Central Sulcus -A furrow in the brain that divides the frontal and parietal lobe Parietal Lobe -Integrates sensory information -Sense of touch Primary Somatosensory Cortex Temporal Lobe -Responsible for auditory and smell info Wernicke's Area -Crucial for language comprehension Motor Cortex -Responsible for the control of skeletal muscles Frontal Lobe -Decision making/voluntary movement/hearing Broca's Area -Responsible for the formation of speech Olfactory Bulb -Responsible for smell Cerebrum -Voluntary movement, learning, emotion, memory, & perception Cerebellum -Coordinates movement and balance
-Helps with learning/remembering motor skills Hypothalamus -Biological clock, body's thermostat
-Allows conscious thought to influence body -Source of melatonin (sleep)
-Helps synchronize functions of body Pineal Gland Pituitary Gland -Controlled by Hypothalamus
-Regulates hunger/thirst, controls fight or flight response, and plays role in sexual/mating behaviors Midbrain Midbrain -Receives/integrates info and sends it to regions of forebrain Brain Stem Responsible for basic survival
Heart rate, breathing, circulation Pons and Medulla -Coordinate large scale body movements (ex: running/climbing) Corpus Callosum Corpus Callosum -Responsible for communication between right and left hemispheres Thalamus Thalamus -Main input center for sensory info
-Recognizes basic senses (pain, touch, temperature) Hover and click play to watch the Action Potential Video! Works Cited Info/Photos: Campbell, Neil A., and Jane B. Reece. Campbell Biology. San Francisco, CA: Benjamin Cummings, 2011.
Photos: "BioAP - Chapter 48 Collaboration 2010." BioAP - Chapter 48 Collaboration 2010. 30 Apr. 2013 <http://bioap.wikispaces.com/Chapter%2048%20Collaboration%202010>.
"Childhood Brain Stem Glioma Treatment (PDQ®)." - The University of Chicago Medicine. 30 Apr. 2013 <http://www.uchospitals.edu/online-library/content=CDR62962>.
"Knee-jerk.html 48_04KneeJerkReflex.jpg." Knee-jerk.html 48_04KneeJerkReflex.jpg. 30 Apr. 2013 <http://bio1152.nicerweb.com/Locked/media/ch48/knee-jerk.html>.
"Medical student teaching -basic-physiology of nervous system -Action potential.avi." YouTube. 11 Nov. 2011. YouTube. 30 Apr. 2013 <
"THE NERVOUS SYSTEM." The nervous system. 30 Apr. 2013 <http://www.emc.maricopa.edu/faculty/farabee/biobk/biobooknerv.html>.
"Neuron Structure." Neuron Structure. 30 Apr. 2013 <http://kvhs.nbed.nb.ca/gallant/biology/neuron_structure.html>.
Action Potential Video: youtube(.)com/watch?v=U0NpTdge3aw Start End