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Nervous System Period 2
Transcript of Nervous System Period 2
Transmit information through nerve impulses via neurons
Nerve impulse pathway:
Sensory, Integrative, Motor Brain
Receives and interprets information
Initiates a response Nerves
Cranial - from brain
Spinal - from spinal cord
Connect CNS to other parts of the body
Somatic and Autonomic Controls skeletal muscles
Voluntary - under conscious control
Initiates response via nerves:
Afferent (Sensory) - Incoming info
Efferent (Motor) - Outgoing info Carry info to smooth/cardiac muscles and glands
Involuntary, but influenced by conscious thought
Divided into efferent pathways Parasympathetic: Rest and repair Sympathetic: "Fight or flight" Nervous System Cells Neurons: send signals
Glia: helper cells that protect and repair neurons Signal Transduction 1. Resting potential - Unstimulated state of neuron (~70 mV) 2. Action potential - Complete depolarization (~30 mV) 3. Repolarization - Restoration of original membrane polarization, but K+ on outside and Na+ on the inside 4. Hyperpolarization - More K+ outside cell than necessary for polarized potential (~-80 mV) 5. Refractory period - Neuron doesn't respond to new stimulus
- Reestablishes distribution of ions
- Returns to resting potential Depolarization: -∆ in membrane potential so that the inside of the membrane is less negative than the outside. Threshold: -Intensity of stimulus that must be reached to cause an action potential to begin Gated-Ion Channels: -Opens and closes in response to a particular ion (response alters membrane potential) -Voltage-gated and Stimulus-gated Behavior and Learning Operant Conditioning- When animal connects own behavior with a specific environmental response (EX: Rats trained to push levers to obtain food or avoid harmful shocks)
Spatial Learning- When animal connects the characteristics of a location with the reward from identifying/returning to the location (EX: Wasps able to identify their nests by using pinecones as markers)
Habituation- Learned behavior that allows an animal to ignore a stimuli (EX: During the cat dissection, we became habituated to the smell of the formaldehyde)
Observational Learning- When animals copy other animal's behavior
Insight- When an animal reacts to a new environment or stimuli without any prior experience resulting in a positive outcome (EX: A chimpanzee stacks boxes in order to access to bananas that were beyond reach) Sensory and Motor Mechanisms Sensory Receptors: -Mechanoreceptors detect pressure, stretch, motion, touch, and sound
-Chemoreceptors detect solute concentration
-Electromagnetic receptors detect electromagnetic energy like electricity, light, and magnetism (Ex: Snakes can detect body heat)
-Thermoreceptors detect hot and cold
-Nociceptors detect stimuli that reflect harmful conditions Gray Matter: -Mainly neurons
-Where integration occurs Reflexes: White Matter: -Bundled axons of neurons with myelin sheaths
-Makes up much of the spinal cord Sensory neuron Integrating neuron Motor neuron Reflexes: -Body's innate responses to a stimulus -Rapid involuntary response
-Ex: knee jerk Engrams: example of learning through experience
Instinct: innate or inherited behavior
Fixed Action Patterns- innate behaviors that follow a regular pattern
-EX: care for offspring by female mammals is innate
Imprinting- innate program for acquiring a specific behavior during a specific time
-EX: Salmon return to their place of birth because they imprinted the odors associated with their birthplace
Associative Learning/Classical Conditioning - Animal recognizes that two or more events are connected/one reaction is connected to a stimulus
-EX: In the lab with the cup and flashlight, the pupil dilated even when the light was not present) Vision Parts of eye: Cornea: does majority of focusing light
Iris: colored part of eye
-Pupil: adjusts amount of light coming into eye
-Radial muscles open pupil/ Sphincter muscles close pupil Lens: major adjustment of focus
Retina: layer of photoreceptors
-Cones: they need high ambient light, used for fine detail/ color
-Rods: they need low ambient light, detect motion, see in shades of gray Fovea: center point of vision Hearing and Balance Parts of Ear: Balance -inner ear
-semicircular canals detect dynamic equilibrium
-utricle and saccule detect static equilibrium Hearing -outer ear- help channel sound
-middle ear- eardrum/ 3 bones that transfer vibrations to inner ear
-inner ear- cochlea detect specific frequencies from vibrations Smell Nose -chemoreceptors in mucus to dissolve substances for smell Taste Tongue -taste buds with chemoreceptors to detect 5 tastes: bitter, sour, sweet, salty, umani - contains nucleus and other organelles - receive signal transfers signal Schwann Cell glial cell that forms myelin sheath for insulation insulates to speed up nerve signal sends signal Nodes of Ranvier -gap between schwann cells that signal travels along Behavior and Learning Cont. The Brain Brain consists of 3 layers of tissue called meninges
Made up of 4 parts
- Cerebrum Occipital Lobe -Combines images, object/pattern recognition and processes visual stimuli Central Sulcus -A furrow in the brain that divides the frontal and parietal lobe Parietal Lobe -Integrates sensory information -Sense of touch Primary Somatosensory Cortex Temporal Lobe -Responsible for auditory and smell info Wernicke's Area -Crucial for language comprehension Motor Cortex -Responsible for the control of skeletal muscles Frontal Lobe -Decision making/voluntary movement/hearing Broca's Area -Responsible for the formation of speech Olfactory Bulb -Responsible for smell Cerebrum -Voluntary movement, learning, emotion, memory, & perception Cerebellum -Coordinates movement and balance
-Helps with learning/remembering motor skills Hypothalamus -Biological clock, body's thermostat
-Allows conscious thought to influence body -Source of melatonin (sleep)
-Helps synchronize functions of body Pineal Gland Pituitary Gland -Controlled by Hypothalamus
-Regulates hunger/thirst, controls fight or flight response, and plays role in sexual/mating behaviors Midbrain Midbrain -Receives/integrates info and sends it to regions of forebrain Brain Stem Responsible for basic survival
Heart rate, breathing, circulation Pons and Medulla -Coordinate large scale body movements (ex: running/climbing) Corpus Callosum Corpus Callosum -Responsible for communication between right and left hemispheres Thalamus Thalamus -Main input center for sensory info
-Recognizes basic senses (pain, touch, temperature) Hover and click play to watch the Action Potential Video! Works Cited Info/Photos: Campbell, Neil A., and Jane B. Reece. Campbell Biology. San Francisco, CA: Benjamin Cummings, 2011.
Photos: "BioAP - Chapter 48 Collaboration 2010." BioAP - Chapter 48 Collaboration 2010. 30 Apr. 2013 <http://bioap.wikispaces.com/Chapter%2048%20Collaboration%202010>.
"Childhood Brain Stem Glioma Treatment (PDQ®)." - The University of Chicago Medicine. 30 Apr. 2013 <http://www.uchospitals.edu/online-library/content=CDR62962>.
"Knee-jerk.html 48_04KneeJerkReflex.jpg." Knee-jerk.html 48_04KneeJerkReflex.jpg. 30 Apr. 2013 <http://bio1152.nicerweb.com/Locked/media/ch48/knee-jerk.html>.
"Medical student teaching -basic-physiology of nervous system -Action potential.avi." YouTube. 11 Nov. 2011. YouTube. 30 Apr. 2013 <
"THE NERVOUS SYSTEM." The nervous system. 30 Apr. 2013 <http://www.emc.maricopa.edu/faculty/farabee/biobk/biobooknerv.html>.
"Neuron Structure." Neuron Structure. 30 Apr. 2013 <http://kvhs.nbed.nb.ca/gallant/biology/neuron_structure.html>.
Action Potential Video: youtube(.)com/watch?v=U0NpTdge3aw Start End