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Boom, Bang, Bust (1919-1945)

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Anna Cubbage

on 29 April 2014

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Transcript of Boom, Bang, Bust (1919-1945)

How did WWI affect politics and economics in Russia?
Death is the solution to all problems. No man - no problem.

What were the economic effects of WWI?

The Rise of Dictators
Mussolini and Italy

Joseph Stalin and Russia

Russia Revolution in 1917- Bolshevik Party under Vladimir Lenin created Communist governments throughout Russia

1922: Russia renamed the Union of Soviet Socialist Republics = USSR
One-party rule
no individual liberties
punished for opposition
1924: Lenin was dead- power struggle for leadership

1926- Joseph Stalin became the dictator

1927- under Stalin, the USSR embarked on a massive industrialization push

Stalin tolerated no opposition, killed between 8 and 10 million peasants who opposed Communist policies

Living conditions for the
people did not improve-
food production increased,
but most was sold to make
$ for industrial & military

These events set the stage
for other fascist leaders to
gain power.

The first major dictatorship in Europe occurred in Italy
1919, Benito Mussolini founded the Fascist Party
Fascism = strong aggressive nationalism, the nation is more important than the individual
Individualism made nations weak
A strong dictator led government was needed to impose order on society

Monday, February 17, 2014
Vol XCIII, No. 311
Was the Treaty of Versailles effective in
creating conditions for peace following WWI?

How did Hitler rise to
power in Germany?

Hitler and Nazism
Redrew map of Eastern
Europe- new boundaries
grouped ethnic minorities
into newly created nations-
problems to arise from new

End of the Ottoman
Empire- creation of
mandate system rather
than granting Arab nations

Revenge vs. Peace...........
Adolph Hitler, anti-Communist
Admired Mussolini
Served in the German Army during WWI
The German surrender and the Versailles Treaty left Hitler and many Germans with a hatred of the Allies and for the German government who accepted the terms of the peace treaty

Postwar Germany, economic and political chaos
New political parties were created one, the National Socialist German Workers Party = Nazi Party
Did not represent the working classes
Was nationalistic and anti-Communist
Hitler was one of the first recruits of the Nazi Party
November, 1923- Nazis attempted to take power by marching on the city hall in Munich

Hitler intended to seize local power and then march on Berlin
Plan failed- Hitler arrested
Placed in prison, wrote Mein Kampf ( My Struggle)

The book called for the unification of all Germans under one government
The Germans needed space, called for expansion into Poland and Russia
Claimed Germans, especially blond, blue-eyed Germans were the master race, Aryans
Slavic peoples of Eastern Europe belonged to an inferior race which should be enslaved by the Germans
Hitler’s racism was strongest towards Jews, claimed they were responsible for the world’s problems and Germany’s defeat in WWI

Out of prison, Hitler worked to get Nazis elected to the Reichstag
Great Depression hit Germany, many desperate Germans voted for radicals including the Nazi and Communist Parties
1932, Nazi Party largest in the Reichstag
Some traditional German leaders liked Hitler’s nationalism- helped Hitler become the leader of Germany in hopes they could control him

1933, Hitler appointed Chancellor
Once in office Hitler called for new elections, had police crack down on Socialist and Communist Parties
Strom troopers, Nazi paramilitary units intimidated voters
Elections allowed Nazis to dominate the Reichstag

Hitler made a dictator
1934, President of Germany, controlled armed forces
Took title of Fuhrer- leader
Began a military buildup in violation of the Treaty of Versailles

Boom, Bang, Bust (1919-1945)

How would the change in the Ottoman Empire's territory impact the balance of world power?
 Reparations- $64 billion bill Germany was ordered to pay to Allies for their costs and losses in war
 Germany can’t pay
 Inflation- Germany prints more and more money
 Great Depression- economic crisis in USA caused ripple effect and caused bank failures in Europe and effects European economies

What were the economic impacts of WWI on Germany?
Italy would become great through territorial expansion and military buildup
Fascism was strongly anti-communist
Many Europeans feared Communists allied with labor unions would destroy their governments
Mussolini used this fear, claimed Fascism was a barrier to communism

How did Mussolini change
the government of Italy?

Liberal members of the Italian parliament demanded the King install martial law, the King refused, cabinet resigned
Conservative advisors convinced the King to name Mussolini Premier
In office Mussolini destroyed democracy and set up a dictatorship
People supported Mussolini, tired of strikes and riots
Support from industrialists, landowners, and the Roman Catholic Church

Mussolini took the title of “Il Duce” The Leader
Set motion a program to bring order to Italy
How would you describe fascism and Mussolini's reign?
How did the Russian Revolution change life in Russia and affect politics in Europe?
Purpose for Viewing:
Journal --> How do these images illustrate Germans' perception of Hitler?


Purpose for Viewing:

Journal --> How does the crowd
illustrate Hitler's popularity as a leader?
Purpose for Viewing:

Journal --> How effective was Nazi Propaganda?


Militarists Control Japan --Totalitarianism
Post WWI Problems

-Japan experienced economic problems

-Industry had to import all of it’s raw materials for production

-1920s Japan did not earn enough from its exports to pay for imports, limited economic growth and high unemployment

-These problems undermined the political system

What do these various graphs tell us about Japan's economy post WWI?
Quick Thought --> Take 1 minute to brainstorm: When there are issues in a country, such as economic hardship, where is the blame placed? Why?

-Great Depression hit, nations raised tariffs, made problems in Japan worse

-Military officers blamed nation’s problems on corrupt government officials

-Officers felt Japan was destined to dominate East Asia

-Democracy was un-Japanese and bad for the nation

-Military leaders and growing number of civilian supporters saw the only way for Japan to get needed resources was to expand

-Wanted resource rich area of China- Manchuria

-September, 1931 the Japanese military without government approval attacked Manchuria

Think About It:

What do you think would happen if our U.S. military attacked an area without permission from government?
Think About It:

What do you see?

What does it mean?

-Japanese government tried to end the Second Sino-Japanese war, prime minister was assassinated

-Military now in control

-Japan had a civilian government, but it supported a nationalistic policy of expansion

-Several military officers were appointed prime minister

Think About It:

Do you think Hitler or Mussolini would have agreed with the Japanese militarists' nationalistic policy of expansion?

Purpose for Viewing:

How would the Japanese Invasion of Manchuria impact its people?

Purpose for Viewing:
Why could it be claimed that WWII started when Japan invaded Manchuria in 1931 and China in 1937?

Do you agree? Why or Why not?
Purpose for Viewing:

How would you describe the Japanese invasion of China?

How does Japanese expansion illustrate competition and conflict?
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