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Thermal Physics

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Andrew Harrison

on 11 April 2011

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Transcript of Thermal Physics

Thermal Physics! The Particle Model Solid Liquid Gas Plasma HEAT UP COOL DOWN Melting Vapourising Ionising freezing condensing de-ionising Sublimation Thermometers A thermometer can be made from any object where some property of the object changes as temperature changes. A liquid - Glass thermometer
uses volume of mercury/alcohol. A termocouple uses voltages. A gallilean thermometer uses changes in density. Temperature strips use arrangement of molecules. To use a thermometer, we must
calibrate it. This means setting up a reliable scale.
e.g. a thermometer uses the boiling/freezing points of water at sea level. GAS LAWS Charles Law -

Pressure Law -

Boyles Law - VOLUME is proportional to TEMPERATURE at constant PRESSURE PRESSURE is proportional to TEMPERATURE at constant VOLUME PRESSURE is inversely proportional to VOLUME at constant TEMPERATURE TRANSFER OF ENERGY 1. Convection. only works in liquids and gases. hot air less dense so rises cools by giving out energy becomes more dense as it cools so falls cold air moves into the place of hot Examples of use: radiotors
gas cooker burners are always at the bottom - more heat
freezer compartments are always at the top - less heat. 2. Conduction Only works in solids. Metals are the best
conductors. vibrates
lots Metal Cold Hot vibrations passed down the solid different materials will conduct with
a different efficiency.
a good electrical conductor will be a good thermal
conductor, e.g. Copper. the two other changes are
radiation (the giving off of light
energy) and evaporation (the energy in
a liquid when it heats up). when we heat a material we are increasing the energy of the particles. temperature is a measure of the average energy of the particles. temperature can be affected by: a) how much energy goes in
b) the mass of the material these things can be wrapped up into one variable (c) the specific heat capacity the units of specific heat capacity are joules per kilo per degree celcius. specific heat capacity is therefore how much energy is needed to heat up one kilo of substance X by 1 KELVIN. remember - SIZE DOESNT MATTER.
whichever gains the lowest amount of
heat for the same amount of energy has
the greatest thermal capacity.
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