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Cold War timeline (FULL)
Transcript of Cold War timeline (FULL)
Roosevelt- Critically ill, trust Stalin and want USA and USSR to remain on good terms, wanted to introduce democracy in E Europe.
Stalin- Obsessed with security of USSR, wanted to make sure new Poland government is friendly towards USSR. 17 July- 2 August 1945 17 July-2 August 1945 Potsdam Different leaders, Roosevelt replaced by Truman, Churchill replaced by Attlee. Truman takes a tough line against communism, more aggressive towards Stalin as USA have developed the atomic bomb, believes it puts USA in a stronger position. Reparation for Germany agreed, details of Polish-German border agreed along the rivers Oder and Neisse. USA rejected Stalin who wanted to share Japan and Ruhr. Stalin rejected USA and Britain who wanted a greater say in E Europe. The Iron Curtain Speech made by Winston Churchill at Fulton, he compared the danger of the Communist to Nazi, warning people not to appease the Communist as they did to the Nazi. This greatly angered the Communist as they are compared to their arch enemy, Nazi. 23 June 1948 23 June 1948- Berlin Blockade Stalin felt threatened by the formation of West Germany, he decided to put a blockade on West Berlin to cut off the supplies for 2 million people living there. USA did not send troops as it will provoke war, instead the entire city is supplied by airlift. It was a triumph for USA and Britain as it shows there determination to resist Stalin. April 1949- Formation of NATO NATO (North Atlantic Treaty Organization) was an alliance that states members will assist each other in case of an armed attack, it is dominated by the USA, evident that all supreme commanders are American. It also further fortifies how determined Truman is to stop communism. 1955- Warsaw Pact USSR feel threatened by NATO, formed its own military alliance- Warsaw Pact. NATO and Warsaw Pact forces faced each other and prepared for war. 1947- Truman Doctrine Truman promised to help any people who wanted to resist communism. 1947- The Marshall Plan Named after General George Marshall, aimed to rebuild the European economy, offering financial aid to countries who resist communism. 1949-COMECON USSR's answer to the Marshall Plan, Council for Mutual Economic Aid, a trading bloc of communist countries. 1927-1949 1927-1949 Communist China (Civil War) Civil war between communist and nationalist, communist won. China and USSR has a tense relationship, Mao felt Stalin did not support him during the struggle. Great Leap Forward, increase output by building factories and setting up collective farm. Cultural Revolution damaged China's economy and harmed relationships with outside world, but it removed many of Mao's opponents. 25 June 1950 25 June 1950 Korean War North Korean invaded the South to unite Korea by force. Truman ordered General MacArthur to send US forces and help South Korea. North Korea forces were very successful at first, only Pusan was left. The US counter attack went extremely well and by 1 October, the original border between North and South Korea was reached. The US forces the proceed to push on near the Chinese border. On 10 October the Chinese government issued a warning that they would attack the Americans if MacArthur continued, MacArthur ignored it. Chinese troops went into action and forced the Americans to retreat, MacArthur planned a further push but failed badly, the Chinese took control of Seoul on 4 of January. Korean War continued MacArthur wants to drop atomic bomb, Truman rejected. Americans launched further attacks but failed, stalemate. MacArthur was dismissed in April. Summer 1951, peace talk began but there were no cease-fire. It was stuck on border and exchange of prisoners, lots of soldiers killed. In 1952, President Ike Eisenhower took power and in 27 July 1953 an agreement to stop fighting was signed. October 16-28 1962 Cuban Missile Crisis 1959- Fidel Castro took power in Cuba introduced communism in Cuba and looked to USSR for support. April 1961- CIA organized an attack on Cuba, set up a base for guerrilla warfare, they expected other Cubans to join, the rebellion force landed at Bay of Pigs. The attack failed miserably as the CIA underestimated the Cuban armed force and the popularity of Fidel Castro. President Kennedy was humiliated. 1962- USSR placed nuclear missiles in Cuba within range of many USA cities, just like the US who placed nuclear missiles in Turkey within range of many USSR cities. Cuban Missile Crisis continued 14 October- U2 spyplane flew over Cuba and took photographs.
16 October- Kennedy was shown the photos
21 October-Kennedy made announcement to the American people.
22 October- Blockade on Cuba employed
26 October- Letter from Khrushchev as there is a real possibility of a nuclear war breaking out between USA and the USSR. Second letter demands USA to remove missiles in Turkey. Cuban Missile Crisis continued Robert Kennedy, brother of the President went to see the Soviet ambassador to negotiate. The crisis was seen as a victory for Kennedy as the deal over withdrawing missile from Turkey is kept secret, it was a defeat for Khrushchev as it seems the Soviets simply backed down. European allies disappointed at USA as little was consulted, France later pulled out of NATO. Both sides also realized the threat of a nuclear war, in the future they avoided direct hostility and tension was reduced.