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CLONING

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by

Cintia Torres Ramírez

on 15 January 2015

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Transcript of CLONING

CLONING
WHAT IS CLONING?
In biology: It is the process in which some organisms (bacterias, some animals, plants, etc) reproduce asexually.
In biotechnology: It is the process in which we get identical copies of a fragment of DNA, a cell, or an organism.
Clones are organisms which are exact genetic copies. Every part of their DNA is identical.

TYPES OF CLONING: CELLULAR CLONING
CLONING UNICELLULAR ORGANISMS:

Cloning a cell means to get a population of cells from a single cell. It is a simple process in the case of unicellular organisms, but it is more difficult for cell cultures from multicellular organisms, and to make it easier they use cloning rings (cylinders).

CLONING STEM CELLS:

Stem cells are cloned by a process called somatic-cell nuclear transfer (SCNT) for research and therapeutic purposes, such as treating diseases as diabetes and Alzheimer.
Process (SCNT):
It consists in removing the nucleus from an egg cell and inserting a nucleus from a somatic cell to be cloned. The reprogrammed cell begins to develop into an embryo which will then form a blastocyst which has the potential to become any cell in the body.



TYPES OF CLONING: ORGANISM CLONING




INDEX
1. What is cloning?
2. Types of cloning:
Molecular cloning.
Cellular cloning.
Organism cloning.
3. History of cloning.
4. Aplications.
5. Consecuencies of cloning.
6. Cloning human beings, is it ethically correct or not?

TYPES OF CLONING: MOLECULAR CLONING
Molecular cloning is used to make identical copies of DNA molecules and to direct their replication in a host organism.


Steps:
1. Fragmentation - breaking apart a strand of DNA.
2. Ligation - gluing together pieces of DNA in a desired sequence.
3. Transfection - inserting the newly formed pieces of DNA into cells.
4. Screening/selection - selecting out the cells that were successfully transfected with the new DNA.

APLICATIONS OF CLONING
In investigations→To study diseases.
In ecology→Recoverment of extinct species.
In agriculture and farming→Transgenic animals and plants.
In medecine→Therapeutic cloning and gene therapy.
The first cloning in the animal world was of a frog in 1952 in Pennsylvania.

DOLLY
Dolly (5 July 1996 – 14 February 2003) was a female domestic cloned sheep. It was cloned in Roslin Institute by Ian Wilmut, Keith Campbell and other colleagues in 1996, and was the first mammal to be cloned. Dolly was cloned by SCNT.

Nowadays, in the world there are more than 300 of cloned mammals. A third are cows, sheeps and goats, and the rest are mice. Scientists do research with primates and dogs too.
HISTORY OF CLONING
CLONING HUMAN BEINGS, IS IT ETHICALLY CORRECT OR NOT?
CONSEQUENCES OF CLONING
High Rate of Failure.

Poor Health and Early Death.

Developmental Problems.

Differences in Telomere Length.

Gene Abnormality.


By: Nahuel Lucero, Alicia Lozano and Cintia Torres.
It is creating a new multicellular organism which is genetically identical to another.

This form of cloning is an asexual method, where fertilization does not occur.
2 TYPES


This process occurs in plants. This is a process where new organisms arise without producing any kind of seeds or spore.












NATURAL
It is a form of reproduction where eggs develop without fertilization. This reproduction is only found in females of some insects, fish and amphibians.











ARTIFICIAL
PARTHENOGENESIS
HORTICULTURAL
ARTIFICIAL CLONING
Reproductive cloning generally uses somatic cell nuclear transfer (SCNT) to create animals genetically identical.

In 1928 Hans Spemann was the pioneer in performing somatic cell nuclear transfer. Medicine Nobel Prize in 1935.

Important fact to know. Even though the DNA from the nucleus in the cloned cells is identical to the original cell, the animal is not identical.
Clone a mouse:
http://learn.genetics.utah.edu/content/cloning/clickandclone/
SCNT diagram: http://mrhardy.wikispaces.com/file/view/Cloning.swf
CLONING HUMANS, WHY NOT?
WHAT ARE THE DISADVANTAGES?
AND ADVANTAGES?
WHY NOT CLONING HUMANS?
BECAUSE OF RELIGION?
1 "LIFE" FOR SCIENCE?
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