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Exploring Cells: Prokaryotes and Eukaryotes

Characteristics of Eukaryotes and Prokaryotes, evolutionary relationships betweens said cells, and structures of each.

Alexa Glenn

on 26 November 2012

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Transcript of Exploring Cells: Prokaryotes and Eukaryotes

Exploring Cells: Prokaryotes and Eukaryotes What defines a cell? In a Eukaryotic cell, most of the DNA is in an organelle called a nucleus, which is bound by a double membrane. A Prokaryotic cell has its DNA concentrated in a region that is not membrane-enclosed, called a nucleoid. What's the difference between a Eukaryotic and Prokaryotic cell? A Prokaryotic cell: in depth Nucleus: contains genes of cell Eukaryotic cells: an animal Cell A plant cell has chloroplasts, a central vacuole, a cell wall, and plasmodesmata and does not have lysosomes, centrosomes, or flagella
-------------------------------------------- A Eukaryotic cell: plant cell.. What are the differences from an animal cell? Prokaryotes are small and often form symbiotic relationships with larger organisms Eukaryotic and Prokaryotic relationships: All cells are bounded by a selective barrier, called a plasma membrane. Enclosed by the membrane is a jelly-like substance called cytosol, in which organelles are found. All cells contain chromosomes, which carry genes in the form of DNA. All cells contain ribosomes, tiny complexes that make proteins according to instructions from the genes. Within a Eukaryotic cell, suspended in cytosol, are a variety of organelles of specialized form and function. These are missing in a Prokaryotic cell. A Eukaryotic cell is typically much larger than a Prokaryotic cell. 1 2 3: Sex Pilus 4 5 6
8 .1: locomotion organelles of some bacteria 2: phili or fimbriae increase surface area of cell, allows for energy efficacy 5: rigid structure outside of plasma membrane: maintains cells shape and protects it from damage. 9 9: location where cell's DNA is located 6: membrane enclosing cytoplasm 3: an appendage that pulls two cells together prior to DNA transfer 4: a tiny complex that makes proteins 7: interior of prokaryotic cell 8: jelly like outer coating 9: region where DNA is located Endoplasmic Reticulum: synthesizes proteins and controls other synthetic and metabolic processes Golgi Complex: organelle active in synthesis, modification, sorting, and secretion of cell products Lysosome: digestive organelle where macromolecules are hydrolyzed Mitochondrion: organelle where cellular respiration takes place and ATP is generated Chloroplast: photosynthetic organelle that converts sunlight into chemical energy Cell wall: outer layer that maintains cell shape and protects cell from damage Central vacuole: functions include storage, breakdown of waste products, and hydrolosis of macromolecules Plasmodesmota: channels through cell walls that connect cytoplasms of adjacent cells The larger organism is the host, with the smaller being the symbiont The prokaryote may participate in mutualism, where both species benefit, with its host Some interactions take the form of commensalism, where one species benefits and one is unaffected. ex: the bacteria on your skin. You provide them with food but you remain unaffected. Some prokaryotes engage in parasitism, where the parasite eats the cell contents, tissues, and fluids of the host END
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